CHAPTER 6 — Operational Planning 6-1
CHAPTER 6
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6-1
INTRODUCTION
6-1.1
Purpose.
This chapter provides a general guide for planning diving operations.
6-1.2
Scope.
This chapter outlines a comprehensive planning process that may be used
in whole or in part to effectively plan and execute diving operations in support of
military operations. The planning worksheets and checklists contained in this
chapter are examples of U.S. Navy material. They may be used as provided or
modified locally to suit specific needs.
6-2
GENERAL PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS
A successful diving mission is the direct outcome of careful, thorough planning.
The nature of each operation determines the scope of the planning effort, but
certain general considerations apply to every operation.
Bottom Time
. Bottom time is always at a premium. Developing measures to
conserve bottom time or increase diver effectiveness is critical for success.
Preplanning
. An operation that is delayed due to unanticipated problems may
fail. Preplanning the use of the time available to accomplish specific objec-
tives is a prerequisite to success.
Equipment
. Selecting the correct equipment for the job is critical to success.
Environmental Conditions
. Diving operational planners must plan for safely
mitigating extreme environmental conditions. Personnel and support facility
safety shall be given the highest priority.
Diver Protection
. It is critical to protect divers from shipping hazards, temper-
ature extremes, and dangerous pollution during all operations.
Emergency Assistance
. It is critical to coordinate emergency assistance from
outside sources before the operation begins.
Weather
. Because diving operations are weather dependent, dive planning
shall allow for worst-case scenarios.
6-2.1
Identifying Available Resources.
The manner in which an operation is planned
and conducted will depend upon variables outside the control of the diving team.
In some operations, a mission-related time factor takes precedence, while in other
operations the availability of equipment or personnel is a controlling factor. For all
operations, the planning effort must identify available resources, which include
6-2 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 2
time, personnel, equipment, support or auxiliary equipment and supplies in order
to:
Ensure the safety of all personnel.
Identify shortages or inadequacies that must be remedied.
Accomplish the operational objectives in a timely and effective manner.
6-3
DEFINE MISSION OBJECTIVE
A clear and concise statement of the mission objective shall be established. If the
officer planning the operation is unclear about the urgency of the mission objec-
tive, he or she shall obtain clarification from the tasking authority to determine
acceptable risks.
Example
: Locate, recover, and deliver lost anchor to USS SMITH at Pier A.
6-4
IDENTIFY OPERATIONAL TASKS
This section outlines the primary diving functions that may be identified in an
operational task. These functions may be incorporated singly or in conjunction
with others. Each task shall be identified and placed in the context of an overall
schedule or job profile. Work items that must be coordinated with other support
teams shall also be identified. The availability of outside assistance, including
assistance for possible emergencies, from a diving unit or other sources must be
coordinated in advance.
6-4.1
Underwater Ship Husbandry (UWSH).
UWSH is the inspection, maintenance,
and repair of Navy hulls and hull appendages while the hulls are waterborne.
UWSH includes tasks such as patching, plugging, attaching cofferdams, water-
borne hull cleaning, underwater weld repair to ship’s hulls and appendages, pro-
peller replacement, underwater hull inspection, and nondestructive testing (Figure
6-1).
6-4.1.1
Objective of UWSH Operations.
The objective of all UWSH operations is to pro-
vide a permanent repair without drydocking the ship. When a permanent repair is
not possible, temporary repairs are performed to allow the ship to operate until its
next scheduled drydocking where permanent repairs can be accomplished.
6-4.1.2
Repair Requirements.
All UWSH repairs shall follow strict Quality Assurance
(QA) procedures to ensure underwater systems are properly repaired. Divers shall
work closely with all other repair activities to ensure procedures comply with pre-
scribed ship design and maintenance specifications. All relevant technical manuals
shall be made available for dive planning, and individual diver background and
expertise shall be considered when assembling dive teams. The NAVSEA Under-
water Ship Husbandry Manual (S0600-AA-PRO-010) provides general guidance
and specific procedures to accomplish many underwater repairs.
CHAPTER 6 — Operational Planning 6-3
6-4.1.3
Diver Training and Qualification Requirements.
Many UWSH training require-
ments and qualifications are task specific. General training may be accomplished
by:
Formalized instruction as in First or Second Class Dive School
NAVSEA-sponsored training, e.g., Sonar Dome Rubber Window (SDRW)
Repair
On the Job Training (OJT)
Personnel Qualification Standards (PQS)
6-4.1.4
Training Program Requirements.
A proper training program should result in
permanent repairs meeting the same tolerances and QA requirements as if
performed in drydock. If there are any questions as to the qualifications required
for a permanent repair, divers should consult with their command repair depart-
ment or contact NAVSEA 00C5.
6-4.2
Salvage/Object Recovery.
In a salvage or object-recovery operation, divers work
to recover sunken or wrecked naval craft, submersibles, downed aircraft, human
remains, or critical items of equipment to help determine the cause of a mishap.
Salvaged items may include classified or sensitive materials (Figure 6-2).
6-4.3
Search Missions.
Underwater searches are conducted to locate underwater
objects or subsurface geological formations. Searches can be performed by
various methods depending on the undersea terrain and purpose of the mission.
Because using divers for an unaided visual search over a large area is time
consuming and labor intensive, this type of search operation should incorporate
Figure 6-1.
Underwater Ship Husbandry Diving.
6-4 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 2
the use of sidescan sonar and other search equipment whenever possible.
Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) may be used to extend searches into deep
waters and areas that are particularly dangerous for a diver. A reconnaissance dive
may be conducted prior to other scheduled dives to gather information that can
save in-water time and identify any special hazards of the dive mission.
6-4.4
Security Swims.
Security swims are employed to search for underwater explo-
sives or other devices that may have been attached to ships or piers. Ship security
swims for ordnance may be conducted by non-Explosive Ordnance Disposal
(EOD) divers only to locate the ordnance. Only EOD divers shall attempt to
handle or dispose of underwater ordnance or improvised explosive devices. Once
a task is identified as involving ordnance disposal, the area shall be marked, EOD
support requested, and all personnel warned to avoid contact with the ordnance.
6-4.5
Explosive Ordnance Disposal.
Divers perform Explosive Ordnance Disposal
tasks including recovering, identifying, disarming, and disposing of explosive
devices that must be cleared from harbors, ships, and sea lanes (Figure 6-3).
Diving in the vicinity of ordnance combines the risks of diving and the explosive
hazards of the ordnance. Diving to investigate, render safe, or dispose of explosive
ordnance found underwater, regardless of type or fusing, shall be accomplished by
qualified EOD divers only. Ship security searches for limpet mines or improvised
explosive devices may be conducted by non-EOD divers for the purposes of loca-
tion only (see paragraph 6-4.4). Only EOD divers shall attempt to render safe
underwater ordnance or improvised explosive devices. Refer to Chapter 17 for
more information on EOD operations.
Figure 6-2.
Salvage Diving. Surface-supplied divers on an aircraft recovery mission.
CHAPTER 6 — Operational Planning 6-5
6-4.6
Underwater Construction.
Underwater construction is the construction, inspec-
tion, repair, and removal of in-water facilities in support of military operations. An
in-water facility can be defined as a fixed harbor, waterfront, or ocean structure
located in or near the ocean. Pipelines, cables, sensor systems, and fixed/
advanced-base structures are examples of in-water facilities (Figure 6-4).
6-4.6.1
Diver Training and Qualification Requirements.
Seabee divers are specifically
trained in the special techniques used to accomplish underwater construction
tasks.
6-4.6.2
Equipment Requirements.
Tools and equipment used include common under-
water tools in addition to specialized ocean construction equipment. Specific tools
and components for large ocean engineering projects are maintained in the Ocean
Construction Equipment Inventory (OCEI) located at St. Julian Creek, Norfolk,
Virginia.
6-4.6.3
Underwater Construction Planning Resources.
References for underwater con-
struction planning can be found in:
UCT Conventional Inspection and Repair Techniques Manual NAVFAC
P-990
Expedient Underwater Repair Techniques NAVFAC P-991
Figure 6-3.
Explosive Ordnance Disposal Diving. An EOD diver using handheld sonar to
locate objects underwater.
6-6 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 2
UCT Arctic Operations Manual
NAVFAC P-992
Design and Installation of Near-
shore Ocean Cable Protection
Systems FPO-5-78
For more information on ocean
construction, commands should consult
NAVFAC Ocean Facilities Program.
6-4.7
Demolition Missions.
Diving opera-
tions may include demolition duties to
remove man-made structures such as
barriers, sunken naval craft, and dam-
aged piers. Demolition operations are
conducted by blasting, freeing, flat-
tening, or cutting with explosives.
Divers may also be assigned to destroy
natural formations, such as reefs, bars,
and rock structures that interfere with
transportation routes. All personnel
involved in handling explosives shall
be qualified in accordance with the
OPNAVINST 8023.2 series.
6-4.8
Combat Swimmer Missions.
Combat swimmers conduct reconnaissance and
neutralization of enemy ships, shore-based installations, and personnel. Some
missions may require an underwater approach to reach coastal installations unde-
tected. Reconnaissance missions and raids may expose the combat swimmers to
additional risk but may be necessary to advance broader warfare objectives.
6-4.9
Enclosed Space Diving.
Divers are often required to work in enclosed or
confined spaces. Using surface-supplied Underwater Breathing Apparatus (UBA)
(MK 20 MOD 0 or MK 21 MOD 1), divers may enter submarine ballast tanks,
mud tanks, or cofferdams, which may be in either a flooded or dry condition.
Access to these spaces is normally restrictive, making it difficult for the diver to
enter and exit. Enclosed space diving shall be supported by a surface-supplied air
system. Refer to section 8-10.4 for more information on the hazards of enclosed
space diving.
6-5
COLLECT AND ANALYZE DATA
Information pertinent to the mission objective shall be collected, organized, and
analyzed to determine what may affect successful accomplishment of the objec-
tive. This process aids in:
Figure 6-4.
Underwater Construction
Diving.
CHAPTER 6 — Operational Planning 6-7
Planning for contingencies
Developing the dive plan
Selecting diving technique, equipment, and diver personnel
Identifying potential hazards and the need for any special emergency
procedures
6-5.1
Information Gathering.
The size of the operation, the diving site location, and the
prevailing environmental conditions influence the extent and type of information
that must be gathered when planning an operation. Some operations are of a recur-
ring nature, so much of the required information is readily available. An example
of a recurring operation is removing a propeller from a particular class of ship.
However, even for a standard operation, the ship may have been modified or
special environmental conditions may exist, requiring a change in procedure or
special tools. Potential changes in task requirements affecting work procedures
should not be overlooked during planning.
6-5.2
Planning Data.
Many operations require that detailed information be collected in
advance. For example, when planning to salvage a sunken or stranded vessel, the
diving team needs to know the construction of the ship, the type and location of
cargo, the type and location of fuel, the cause of the sinking or stranding, and the
nature and degree of damage sustained. Such information can be obtained from
ship’s plans, cargo manifests and loading plans, interviews with witnesses and
survivors, photographs, and official reports of similar accidents.
6-5.2.1
Object Recovery.
Operations involving the recovery of an object from the bottom
require knowledge of the dimensions and weight of the object. Other useful infor-
mation includes floodable volume, established lifting points, construction
material, length of time on the bottom, probable degree of embedment in mud or
silt, and the nature and extent of damage. This data helps determine the type of lift
to be used (e.g., boom, floating crane, lifting bags, pontoons), indicates whether
high-pressure hoses are needed to jet away mud or silt, and helps determine the
disposition of the object after it is brought to the surface. Preliminary planning
may find the object too heavy to be placed on the deck of the support ship, indi-
cating the need for a barge and heavy lifting equipment.
6-5.2.2
Searching for Objects or Underwater Sites.
When the operation involves
searching for an object or underwater site, data gathered in advance helps to limit
the search area. There are numerous planning data sources available to help super-
visors collect data for the operation (see Figure 6-5). For example, information
useful in narrowing the search area for a lost aircraft includes the aircraft’s last
known heading, altitude, and speed.; radar tracks plotted by ships and shore
stations; tape recordings and radio transmissions; and eyewitness accounts. Once a
general area is outlined, a side scan sonar system can be used to locate the debris
field, and an ROV can identify target items located by the side scan sonar. Once
the object of the search has been found, the site should be marked, preferably with
an acoustic transponder (pinger) and/or a buoy. If time and conditions permit,
6-8 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 2
preliminary dives by senior, experienced members of the team can be of great
value in verifying, refining, and analyzing the data to improve the dive plan. This
method saves diver effort for recovering items of interest.
6-5.2.3
Identifying Operational Hazards.
Information must be collected to help identify
hazards. For example, a diver working around a ship shall know the location and
status of ship sea suctions and discharge points, propellers, rudders, diving planes,
and sonar transducers. If working on or near a vessel that has a nuclear propulsion
system, the diver shall be aware of radiological hazards, rules for working on or
near such a vessel, and the locations of the reactor compartment, discharges, etc.
Most importantly, the diver shall be briefed on potential exposure and shall wear
proper underwater radiological exposure detection instruments.
6-5.3
Data Required for All Diving Operations.
Data involving the following general
categories shall be collected and analyzed for all diving operations:
Surface conditions
Underwater conditions
Equipment and personnel resources
Assistance in emergencies
PLANNING DATA SOURCES
Aircraft Drawings
Cargo Manifest
Coastal Pilot Publications
Cognizant Command
Communications Logs
Construction Drawings
Current Tables
Diving Advisory Messages
DRT Tracks
DSV/DSRV Observations
Electronic Analysis
Equipment Operating Proce-
dures (OPs)
Equipment Operation and Main-
tenance Manuals
Eyewitnesses
Flight or Ship Records
Flight Plan
Hydrographic Publications
Light Lists
Local Yachtsmen/Fishermen
LORAN Readings
Magnetometer Plots
Navigation Text
(Duttons/Bowditch)
Navigational Charts
NAVOCEANO Data
Notices to Mariners
OPORDERS
Photographs
Radar Range and Bearings
RDF Bearings
ROV Video and Pictures
Sailing Directions
Salvage Computer Data
Ship’s Curves of Forms
Ship’s equipment
Ship’s Logs and Records
Ship’s Personnel
Ships Drawings (including docking
plan)
Side-Scan Sonar Plots
SINS Records
SITREP
Sonar Readings and/or Charts
TACAN Readings
Technical Reference Books
Test Records
Tide Tables
Underwater Work Techniques
USN Diving Manual Reference List
USN Instructions
USN Ship Salvage Manual
Visual Bearings
Weather Reports
Figure 6-5.
Planning Data Sources.
CHAPTER 6 — Operational Planning 6-9
6-5.3.1
Surface Conditions.
Surface conditions in the operating area affect both the
divers and the topside team members. Surface conditions are influenced by loca-
tion, time of year, wind, waves, tides, current, cloud cover, temperature, visibility,
and the presence of other ships. Completing the Environmental Assessment Work-
sheet (Figure 6-6) helps ensure that environmental factors are not overlooked
during planning. For an extensive dive mission, a meteorological detachment may
be requested from the local or regional meteorological support activity.
6-5.3.2
Natural Factors.
Normal conditions for the area of operations can be determined
from published tide and current tables, sailing directions, notices to mariners, and
special charts that show seasonal variations in temperature, wind, and ocean
currents. Weather reports and long-range weather forecasts shall be studied to
determine if conditions will be acceptable for diving. Weather reports shall be
continually monitored while an operation is in progress.
NOTE Divin
g
shall be discontinued if sudden squalls, electrical storms, heavy
seas, unusual tide or any other condition exists that, in the opinion of
the Divin
g
Supervisor, jeopardizes the safety of the divers or topside
personnel.
6-5.3.2.1
Sea State.
A significant factor is the sea state (Figure 6-7). Wave action can affect
everything from the stability of the moor to the vulnerability of the crew to
seasickness or injury. Unless properly moored, a ship or boat drifts or swings
around an anchor, fouling lines and dragging divers. Because of this, any vessel
being used to support surface-supplied or tended diving operations shall be
secured by at least a two-point moor. Exceptions to diving from a two-point moor
may occur when moored alongside a pier or another vessel that is properly
anchored, or when a ship is performing diving during open ocean transits and
cannot moor due to depth. A three- or four-point moor, while more difficult to set,
may be preferred depending on dive site conditions.
Divers are not particularly affected by the action of surface waves unless operating
in surf or shallow waters, or if the waves are exceptionally large. Surface waves
may become a serious problem when the diver enters or leaves the water and
during decompression stops near the surface.
6-5.3.2.2
Tender Safety.
Effective dive planning shall provide for extreme temperatures
that may be encountered on the surface. Normally, such conditions are a greater
problem for tending personnel than for a diver. Any reduction in the effectiveness
of the topside personnel may endanger the safety of a diver. Tending personnel
shall guard against:
Sunburn and windburn
Hypothermia and frostbite
Heat exhaustion
6-10 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 2
Figure 6-6.
Environmental Assessment Worksheet. The Environmental Assessment Worksheet indicates cate-
gories of data that might be gathered for an operation. Planners may develop an assessment methodology to suit
the particular situation. The data collected is vital for effective operations planning, and is also of value when filing
Post Salvage Reports.
CHAPTER 6 — Operational Planning 6-11
Sea
State
Description
Wind Force
(Beaufort)
Wind
Description
Range
(knots)
Wind
Velocity
(knots)
Average
Wave
Height
(ft)
0
Sea like a mirror.
Ripples with the appearance of scales are
formed, but without foam crests.
0
1
Calm
Light Air
<1
5-3
0
2
0
0.05
1
Small wavelets still short but more pro-
nounced; crests have a glassy appearance
but do not break.
2 Light Breeze 4-6 5 0.18
2
Large wavelets, crests begin to break. Foam
of glassy appearance, perhaps scattered
whitecaps.
3 Gentle Breeze 7-10
8.5
10
0.6
0.88
3
Small waves, becoming longer; fairly frequent
whitecaps.
4
Moderate
Breeze
15-16
12
13.5
14
16
1.4
1.8
2.0
2.9
4
Moderate waves, taking a more pronounced
long form; many whitecaps are formed.
Chance of some spray.
5 Fresh Breeze 17-21
18
19
20
3.8
4.3
5.0
5
Large waves begin to form; white foam crests
are more extensive everywhere. Some spray.
6 Strong Breeze 22-27
22
24
24.5
26
6.4
7.9
8.2
9.6
6
Sea heaps up and white foam from breaking
waves begins to be blown in streaks along
the direction of the wind. Spindrift begins.
7 Moderate Gale 28-33
28
30
30.5
32
11
14
14
16
7
Moderately high waves of greater length;
edges of crests break into spindrift. The foam
is blown in well marked streaks along the
direction of the wind. Spray affects visibility.
8 Fresh Gale 34-40
34
36
37
38
40
19
21
23
25
28
8
High waves. Dense streaks of foam along the
direction of the wind. Sea begins to roll. Visi-
bility affected.
9 Strong Gale 45-47
42
44
46
31
36
40
9
Very high waves with long overhanging
crests. Foam is in great patches and is blown
in dense white streaks along the direction of
the wind. The surface of the sea takes on a
white appearance. The rolling of the sea
becomes heavy and shock-like. Visibility is
affected.
10 Whole Gale 48-55
48
50
51.5
52
54
44
49
52
54
59
Exceptionally high waves. The sea is com-
pletely covered with long white patches of
foam along the direction of the wind. Every-
where the edges of the wave crests are blown
into froth. Visibility seriously affected.
11 Storm 56-63
56
59.5
64
73
Air filled with foam and spray. Sea completely
white with driving spray. Visibility seriously
affected.
12 Hurricane 64-71 >64 >80
Figure 6-7.
Sea State Chart.
6-12 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 2
6-5.3.2.3
Windchill Factor.
In cold, windy weather, the windchill factor shall be considered.
Exposure to cold winds greatly increases dangers of hypothermia and all types of
cold injury. For example, if the actual temperature is 35°F and the wind velocity is
35 mph, the windchill factor is equivalent to 5°F (Figure 6-8). For information on
ice and cold water diving operations, refer to Chapter 11.
Actual
Air Temp
°F (°C)
Wind MPH
5 10152025303540
Equivalent Chill Temperature °F (°C)
40 (4)
35 (2) 30 (-1) 25 (-4) 20 (-7) 15 (-9) 10 (-12) 10 (-12) 10 (-12)
35 (2)
30 (-1) 20 (-7) 15 (-9) 10 (-12) 10 (-12) 5 (-15) 5 (-15) 0 (-17)
30 (-1)
25 (-4) 15 (-9) 10 (-12) 5 (-15) 0 (-17) 0 (-17) 0 (-17) -5 (-21)
25 (-4)
20 (-7) 10 (-12) 0 (-17) 0 (-17) -5 (-21) -10 (-23) -10 (-23) -15 (-26)
20 (-7)
15 (-9) 5 (-15) -5 (-21) -10 (-23) -15 (-26) -20 (-29) -20 (-29) -20 (-29)
15 (-9)
10 (-12) 0 (-17) -10 (-23) -15 (-26) -20 (-29)
-25 (-32) -25 (-32) -30 (-34)
10 (-12)
5 (-15) -10 (-23) -20 (-29)
-25 (-32) -30 (-34) -30 (-34) -30 (-34) -35 (-37)
5 (-15)
0 (-17) -15 (-26)
-25 (-32) -30 (-34) -35 (-37) -40 (-40) -40 (-40) -45 (-43)
0 (-17)
-5 (-15) -20 (-24)
-30 (-34) -35 (-37) -45 (-43) -55 (-46) -50 (-46) -55 (-48)
-5 (-21)
-10 (-23)
-25 (-32) -40 (-40) -45 (-43) -50 (-46) -65 (-54) -60 (-51) -60 (-51)
-10 (-23)
-15 (-26)
-35 (-37) -45 (-43) -50 (-46) -60 (-54) -70 (-57) -65 (-54) -70 (-57)
-15 (-26)
-20 (-29)
-40 (-40) -50 (-46) -60 (-51) -65 (-54) -70 (-57) -75 (-60) -75 (-60)
-20 (-29)
-25 (-32) -45 (-43) -60 (-51) -65 (-54) -75 (-60) -80 (-62) -85 (-65) -90 (-68)
-25 (-32)
-30 (-34) -50 (-46) -65 (-45) -75 (-60) -80 (-62) -85 (-65) -90 (-68) -95 (-71)
-30 (-34)
-35 (-37) -60 (-51) -70 (-57) -80 (-62) -90 (-68) -95 (-71) -100 (-73) -100 (-73)
-35 (-37)
-40 (-40) -65 (-54) -80 (-62) -85 (-65) -95 (-71) -100 (-73) -105 (-76) -110 (-79)
-40 (-40)
-45 (-43) -70 (-57) -85 (-65) -95 (-71) -105 (-76) -110 (-79) -115 (-82) -115 (-82)
-45 (-43)
-50 (-46) -75 (-60) -90 (-68) -100 (-73) -110 (-79) -115 (-82) -120 (-85) -125 (-87)
-50 (-46)
-55 (-48) -80 (-62) -100 (-73) -110 (-79) -120 (-85) -125 (-87) -130 (-90) -130 (-90)
-55 (-48)
-60 (-51) -90 (-68) -105 (-76) -115 (-82) -125 (-87) -130 (-90) -135 (-93) -140 (-96)
-60 (-51)
-70 (-57) -95 (-71) -110 (-79) -120 (-85) -135 (-93) -140 (-96) -145 (-98) -150 (-101)
Figure 6-8.
Equivalent Windchill Temperature Chart.
LITTLE DANGER
INCREASING DANGER (flesh may freeze within one minute)
GREAT DANGER (flesh may freeze within 20 seconds)
CHAPTER 6 — Operational Planning 6-13
6-5.3.2.4
Surface Visibility.
Variations in surface visibility are important. Reduced visibility
may seriously hinder or force postponement of diving operations. For operations
to be conducted in a known fog belt, the diving schedule should allow for delays
because of low visibility. Diver and support crew safety is the prime consideration
when determining whether surface visibility is adequate. For example, a surfacing
diver might not be able to find his support craft, or the diver and the craft itself
might be in danger of being hit by surface traffic. A proper radar reflector for
small craft should be considered.
6-5.3.3
Depth.
Depth is a major factor in selecting both diving personnel and apparatus
and influences the decompression profile for any dive. Operations in deep waters
may also call for special support equipment such as underwater lights, cameras,
ROV, etc.
Depth must be carefully measured and plotted over the general area of the opera-
tion to get an accurate depth profile of the dive site. Soundings by a ship-mounted
fathometer are reasonably accurate but shall be verified by either a lead-line
sounding, a pneumofathometer (Figure 6-9), or a high resolution sonar (bottom
finder or fish finder). Depth readings taken from a chart should only be used as an
indication of probable depth.
6-5.3.4
Type of Bottom.
The type of bottom may have a significant effect upon a diver’s
ability to move and work efficiently and safely. Advance knowledge of bottom
conditions is important in scheduling work, selecting dive technique and equip-
ment, and anticipating possible hazards. The type of bottom is often noted on the
Figure 6-9.
Pneumofathometer. The pneumofathometer hose is attached to a diver or
weighted object and lowered to the depth to be measured. Water is forced out of the hose
by pressurized air until a generally constant reading is noted on the pressure gauge. The
air supply is secured, and the actual depth (equal to the height of the water column
displaced by the air) is read on the gauge.
air supply
water column pneumofathometer
hose
pressure gauge (calibrated in feet of seawater)
6-14 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 2
chart for the area, but conditions can change within just a few feet. Independent
verification of the type of bottom should be obtained by sample or observation.
Figure 6-10 outlines the basic types of bottoms and the characteristics of each.
6-5.3.5
Tides and Currents.
The basic types of currents that affect diving operations are:
River or Major Ocean Currents
. The direction and velocity of normal river,
ocean, and tidal currents will vary with time of the year, phase of the tide, con-
figuration of the bottom, water depth, and weather. Tide and current tables
show the conditions at the surface only and should be used with caution when
planning diving operations. The direction and velocity of the current beneath
the surface may be quite different than that observed on the surface.
Ebb Tides
. Current produced by the ebb and flow of the tides may add to or
subtract from any existing current.
Undertow or Rip Current
. Undertow or rip currents are caused by the rush of
water returning to the sea from waves breaking along a shoreline. Rip currents
will vary with the weather, the state of the tide, and the slope of the bottom.
TYPE CHARACTERISTICS VISIBILITY DIVER MOBILITY ON BOTTOM
Rock
Smooth or jagged,
minimum sediment
Generally unrestricted by dive
movement
Good, exercise care to prevent line
snagging and falls from ledges
Coral
Solid, sharp and jagged,
found in tropical waters
only
Generally unrestricted by diver
movement
Good, exercise care to prevent line
snagging and falls from ledges
Gravel
Relatively smooth, granular
base
Generally unrestricted by diver
movement
Good, occasional sloping bottoms of
loose gravel impair walking and
cause instability
Shell
Composed principally of
broken shells mixed with
sand or mud
Shell-sand mix does not impair
visibility when moving over bottom.
Shell-mud mix does impair
visibility. With higher mud
concentrations, visibility is
increasingly impaired.
Shell-sand mix provides good
stability. High mud content can cause
sinking and impaired movement
Sand
Common type of bottom,
packs hard
Generally unrestricted by diver
movement
Good
Mud and
Silt
Common type of bottom,
composed of varying
amounts of silt and clay,
commonly encountered in
river and harbor areas
Poor to zero. Work into the current
to carry silt away from job site,
minimize bottom disturbance.
Increased hazard presented by
unseen wreckage, pilings, and
other obstacles.
Poor, can readily cause diver
entrapment. Crawling may be
required to prevent excessive
penetration, fatiguing to diver.
Figure 6-10.
Bottom Conditions and Effects Chart.
CHAPTER 6 — Operational Planning 6-15
These currents may run as fast as two knots and may extend as far as one-half
mile from shore. Rip currents, not usually identified in published tables, can
vary significantly from day to day in force and location.
Surface Current Generated by Wind
. Wind-generated surface currents are
temporary and depend on the force, duration, and fetch of the wind. If the
wind has been blowing steadily for some time, this current should be taken
into consideration especially when planning surface swims and scuba dives.
6-5.3.5.1
Equipment Requirements for Working in Currents.
A diver wearing a surface-
supplied outfit, such as the MK 21 SSDS with heavy weights, can usually work in
currents up to 1.5 knots without undue difficulty. A diver supplied with an addi-
tional weighted belt may be able to accomplish useful work in currents as strong
as 2.5 knots. A scuba diver is severely handicapped by currents greater than 1.0
knot. If planning an operation in an area of strong current, it may be necessary to
schedule work during periods of slack water to minimize the tidal effect.
6-6
IDENTIFY ENVIRONMENTAL AND OPERATIONAL HAZARDS
Underwater environmental conditions have a major influence on the selection of
divers, diving technique, and the equipment to be used. In addition to environ-
mental hazards, a diver may be exposed to operational hazards that are not unique
to the diving environment. This section outlines the environmental and operational
hazards that may impact an operation.
6-6.1
Underwater Visibility.
Underwater visibility varies with depth and turbidity. Hori-
zontal visibility is usually quite good in tropical waters; a diver may be able to see
more than 100 feet at a depth of 180 fsw. Horizontal visibility is almost always
less than vertical visibility. Visibility is poorest in harbor areas because of river
silt, sewage, and industrial wastes flowing into the harbor. Agitation of the bottom
caused by strong currents and the passage of large ships can also affect visibility.
The degree of underwater visibility influences selection of dive technique and can
greatly increase the time required for a diver to complete a given task. For
example, a diving team preparing for harbor operations should plan for extremely
limited visibility, possibly resulting in an increase in bottom time, a longer period
on station for the diving unit, and a need for additional divers on the team.
6-6.2
Temperature.
Figure 6-11 illustrates how water temperature can affect a diver’s
performance, and is intended as a planning guide. A divers physical condition,
amount of body fat, and thermal protection equipment determine how long expo-
sure to extreme temperatures can be endured safely. In cold water, ability to
concentrate and work efficiently will decrease rapidly. Even in water of moderate
temperature (60–70°F, 15.5–21.5°C), the loss of body to the water can quickly
bring on diver exhaustion.
6-6.3
Contaminated Water.
When planning for contaminated-water diving, medical
personnel should be consulted to ensure proper predive precautions are taken and
postdive monitoring of divers is conducted. Resources outside the scope of this
6-16 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 2
Figure 6-11.
Water Temperature Protection Chart.
CHAPTER 6 — Operational Planning 6-17
manual may be required to deal with nuclear, biological, or chemical contami-
nants. Resources and technical advice for dealing with contaminated-water diving
conditions are available from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra-
tion (NOAA) HAZMAT Department.
6-6.4
Thermal Pollution.
Divers may encounter a variety of forms of pollution that can
cause problems. Divers may be required to work in the vicinity of a sewer or
industrial outfall discharging high-temperature wastes. In such situations, the
diver and topside personnel shall be particularly alert for the symptoms of heat
exhaustion. To date, no practical dress has been designed specifically to protect
the diver against unusually warm water although hot water suits may be used with
cold water piped to the diver. A diver working near sewer outlets or industrial
discharges may also be exposed to biological or chemical pollution hazards.
6-6.5
Chemical Contamination.
Oil leaking from underwater wellheads or damaged
tanks can foul equipment and seriously impede a divers movements. Toxic mate-
rials or volatile fuels leaking from barges or tanks can irritate the skin and corrode
equipment. Diving units should not conduct the dive until the contaminant has
been identified, the safety factors evaluated, and a process for decontamination set
up. Divers operating in waters where a chemical or chemical warfare threat is
known or suspected shall evaluate the threat and protect themselves as appro-
priate. The MK 21 UBA with a double exhaust and a dry suit dress assembly
affords limited protection for diving in polluted and contaminated water. Refer to
the MK 21 UBA NAVSEA Technical Manual, S6560-AG-OMP-010-UBA-MK21/1
for more information on using the MK 21 UBA with a dry suit assembly.
6-6.6
Biological Contamination.
Scuba divers are especially vulnerable to ear and skin
infections when diving in waters that contain biological contamination. Divers
may also inadvertently take polluting materials into the mouth, posing both physi-
ological and psychological problems. In planning for operations in waters known
to be polluted, protective clothing and appropriate preventative medical proce-
dures shall be taken. Diving equipment shall be selected that gives the diver
maximum protection consistent with the threat. External ear prophylaxis should be
provided to diving personnel to prevent ear infections.
6-6.7
Altitude Diving.
Divers may be required to dive in bodies of water at higher alti-
tudes. Planning shall address the effects of the atmospheric pressures that may be
much lower than those at sea level. U.S. Navy Air Decompression Tables are
authorized for use at altitudes up to 300 feet above sea level without corrections
(see paragraph 9-12). Transporting divers out of the diving area, which may
include movement into even higher elevations either overland or by plane,
requires special consideration and planning. The Diving Supervisor shall be alert
for symptoms of hypoxia and decompression sickness after the dive due to the
lower oxygen partial pressure and atmospheric pressure.
6-6.8
Underwater Obstacles.
Various underwater obstacles, such as wrecks or
discarded munitions, offer serious hazards to diving. Wrecks and dumping
grounds are often noted on charts, but the actual presence of obstacles might not
be discovered until an operation begins. This is a good reason for scheduling a
6-18 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 2
preliminary inspection dive before a final work schedule and detailed dive plan is
prepared.
6-6.9
Electrical Shock Hazards.
Electrical shock may occur when using electric
welding or power equipment. All electrical equipment shall be in good repair and
be inspected before diving. Although equipped with test buttons, electrical
Grounds Fault Interrupters (GFI) often do not provide any indication when the
unit has experienced an internal component failure in the fault circuitry. Therefore,
GFI component failure during operation (subsequent to testing the unit) may go
unnoticed. Although this failure alone will not put the diver at risk, the GFI will
not protect the diver if he is placed in contact with a sufficiently high fault current.
The following is some general information concerning GFIs:
GFIs are required when line voltage is above 7.5 VAC or 30 VDC.
GFIs shall be capable of tripping within 20 milliseconds (ms) after detecting a
maximum leakage current of 30 milliamps (ma).
GFIs require an established reference ground in order to function properly.
Cascading GFIs could result in loss of reference ground; therefore, GFIs or
equipment containing built-in GFIs should not be plugged into an existing GFI
circuit.
In general, three independent actions must occur simultaneously to electrically
shock a diver:
The GFI must fail.
The electrical equipment which the diver is operating must experience a
ground fault.
The diver must place himself in the path between the fault and earth ground.
6-6.9.1
Reducing Electrical Shock Hazards.
The only effective means of reducing elec-
trical shock hazards are to ensure:
Electrical equipment is properly maintained.
All electrical devices and umbilicals are inspected carefully before all
operations.
Electrical umbilicals are adequately protected to reduce the risk of being
abraded or cut when pulled over rough or sharp objects.
Personnel are offered additional protection through the use of rubber suits
(wet, dry, or hot-water) and rubber gloves.
GFI circuits are tested at regular intervals throughout the operation using built-
in test circuits.
CHAPTER 6 — Operational Planning 6-19
Divers operating with remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) should take similar
precautions to ensure the ROV electrical system offers the required protection.
Many new ROVs use extremely high voltages which make these protective
actions even more critical to diver safety.
NEDU has been tasked with repair and testing of the Daniel Woodhead company
Model 1670 and 1680 GFIs. Woodhead GFIs needing repair or testing should be
sent to:
Navy Experimental Diving Unit
Shipping and Receiving Officer
321 Bullfinch Road
Panama City, FL 32407-7015
ATTN: Code 03D1
Units should be sent to the above address with a DD-1149 and complete return
address and written details of problem.
6-6.9.2
Securing Electrical Equipment.
The Ship Repair Safety Checklist for Diving
requires underwater electrical equipment to be secured while divers are working
over the side. While divers are in the water:
Ship impressed-current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems must be secured,
tagged out, and confirmed secured before divers may work on an ICCP device
such as an anode, dielectric shield, or reference cell.
When divers are required to work close to an active ICCP anode and there is a
risk of contact with the anode, the system must also be secured.
In situations other than those described above, the ICCP is to remain active.
Divers working within 15 feet of active systems must wear a full dry suit,
unisuit, or wet suit with hood and gloves.
All other underwater electrical equipment shall be secured while divers are
working over the side.
6-6.10
Explosions.
Explosions may be set off in demolition tasks intentionally, acciden-
tally, or as the result of enemy action. When working with or near explosives, the
procedures outlined in SWO 60-AA-MMA-010 shall be followed. Divers should
stay clear of old or damaged munitions. Divers should get out of the water when
an explosion is imminent.
WARNING Weldin
g
or cuttin
g
torches may cause an explosion on penetration of
g
as-filled compartments, resultin
g
in serious injury or death.
6-6.11
Sonar.
Appendix 1A provides guidance regarding safe diving distances and expo-
sure times for divers operating in the vicinity of ships transmitting with sonar. This
6-20 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 2
appendix has been substantially revised from Safe Diving Distances from Trans-
mitting Sonar (NAVSEAINST 3150.2A) and should be read in its entirety.
6-6.12
Nuclear Radiation.
Radiation may be encountered as the result of an accident,
proximity to weapons or propulsion systems, weapons testing, or occasionally
natural conditions. Radiation exposure can cause serious injury and illness. Safe
tolerance levels have been set and shall not be exceeded. These levels may be
found in the Radiological Control Manual, NAVSEA 0389-LP-660-6542. Local
instructions may be more stringent and in such case shall be followed. Prior to
diving, all dive team members shall be thoroughly knowledgeable of the local/
command radiological control requirements. All divers shall have a Thermal
Luminescence Dosimeter (TLD) or similar device and be apprised of the locations
of items such as the reactor compartment, discharges, etc.
6-6.13
Marine Life.
Certain marine life, because of its aggressive or venomous nature,
may be dangerous to man. Some species of marine life are extremely dangerous,
while some are merely an uncomfortable annoyance. Most dangers from marine
life are largely overrated because most underwater animals leave man alone. All
divers should be able to identify the dangerous species that are likely to be found
in the area of operation and should know how to deal with each. Refer to
Appendix 5C for specific information about dangerous marine life, including iden-
tification factors, dangerous characteristics, injury prevention, and treatment
methods.
6-6.14
Vessel and Small Boat Traffic.
The presence of other ships is often a serious
problem. It may be necessary to close off an area or limit the movement of other
ships. A local Notice to Mariners should be issued. At any time that diving opera-
tions are to be conducted in the vicinity of other ships, they shall be properly
notified by International Code signal flags (Figure 6-12). An operation may have
to be conducted in an area with many small boats operated by people with varied
levels of seamanship and knowledge of Nautical Rules of the Road. The diving
team should assume that these operators are not acquainted with diving signals
and take the precautions required to ensure that these vessels remain clear of the
diving area. Hazards associated with vessel traffic are intensified under conditions
of reduced visibility.
NOTE When small civilian boats are in the area, use the civilian Sport Diver fla
g
(red with white dia
g
onal stripe) as well as “Code Alpha.”
6-6.15
Territorial Waters.
Diving operations conducted in the territorial waters of other
nations shall be properly coordinated prior to diving. Diving units must be alert to
the presence of foreign intelligence-collection ships and the potential for hostile
action when diving in disputed territorial waters or combat zones.
6-7
SELECT DIVING TECHNIQUE
The three main types of air diving equipment used in U.S. Navy diving operations
are (Figure 6-13):
CHAPTER 6 — Operational Planning 6-21
Figure 6-12.
International Code Signal Flags.
6-22 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 2
1.
Open-circuit scuba
2.
MK 20 MOD 0 surface-supplied gear
3.
MK 21 MOD 1 surface-supplied gear
6-7.1
Factors to Consider when Selecting the Diving Technique.
When selecting the
technique to be used for a dive, the following factors must be considered:
Duration and depth of the dive
Type of work to be performed
Environmental conditions
Time constraints
A dive of extended length, even in shallow water, may require an air supply
exceeding that which could be provided by scuba. Specific depth limits have been
established for each type of diving gear and shall not be exceeded without specific
approval of the Chief of Naval Operations in accordance with the OPNAVINST
3150.27 series (see Figure 6-14).
Figure 6-13.
Air Diving Techniques. A choice of three air diving techniques are available: open circuit scuba,
surface-supplied gear (MK 20 MOD 0), and surface-supplied deep-sea gear (MK 21 MOD 1).
OPEN-CIRCUIT SCUBA
Normal working limit: 130 fsw
Operational necessity: 190 fsw
SURFACE-SUPPLIED GEAR
(MK 20 MOD 0)
Normal working limit with EGS: 60 fsw
SURFACE-SUPPLIED DEEP-SEA GEAR
(MK 21 MOD 1)
Normal working limit with EGS: 190 fsw
CHAPTER 6 — Operational Planning 6-23
NORMAL AND MAXIMUM LIMITS FOR AIR DIVING
Depth fsw
(meters)
Limit for Equipment Notes
60 (18) MK 21 MOD 0 diving equipment, maximum working limit without
Emergency Gas Supply (EGS)
a
60 (18) MK 20 MOD 0 equipment surface-supplied a
60 (18) Maximum depth for standby scuba diver using a single cylinder
100 (30) Open-circuit scuba with single scuba bottle b
130 (40) Open-circuit scuba, normal working limit b
190 (58) Open-circuit scuba, maximum working limit with Commanding
Officer’s permission
b, d
190 (58) MK 21 MOD 1 (air) diving equipment with EGS, normal working
limit
c, d, e
285 (87) MK 21 MOD 1 (air) diving equipment with EGS, maximum
working limit, exceptional exposure with authorization from the
Chief of Naval Operations (N873)
c, d, e
General Operating Notes (Apply to all):
1. These limits are based on a practical consideration of working time versus decompression time and
oxygen-tolerance limits. These limits shall not be exceeded except by specific authorization from the Chief
of Naval Operations (N873).
2. Do not exceed the limits for exceptional exposures for the Standard Air Decompression Table.
3. In an emergency, any operable recompression chamber may be used for treatment if deemed safe to use
by the Diving Supervisor.
Specific Notes:
a. When diving in an enclosed space an EGS must be used by each diver.
b. Under normal circumstances, do not exceed the limits of the No-Decompression Table. Dives requiring
decompression may be made if considered necessary with approval by the Commanding Officer of the
diving command. The total time of a scuba dive (including decompression) shall not exceed the duration of
the apparatus in use, disregarding any reserves.
c. A Diving Medical Officer is required at the site for all air dives deeper than 190 fsw, where the maximum
working depth of the diving apparatus may be exceeded, and for exceptional exposure dives.
d. All planned air decompression dives deeper than 130 fsw require a certified recompression chamber on
site. An on-site chamber is defined as a certified and ready chamber accessible within 30 minutes
of the dive site by available transportation.
e. The Exceptional Exposure Tables, printed in red in the Standard Air Tables, have a significantly higher
probability of DCS and CNS oxygen toxicity.
Figure 6-14.
Normal and Maximum Limits for Air Diving.
6-24 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 2
The increase of air consumption with depth limits open-circuit scuba to 130 fsw
for reasonable working dives. The hazards of nitrogen narcosis and decompression
further limit open-circuit scuba to 190 fsw even for short duration dives. Surface-
supplied equipment is generally preferred between 130 and 190 fsw, although
open-circuit scuba may be used under some circumstances. Decompression scuba
dives and scuba dives deeper than 130 fsw may be conducted when dictated by
operational necessity and with the specific approval of the Commanding Officer.
All open-circuit scuba dives beyond 100 fsw shall employ twin cylinders, with
each having a capacity at least equal to a steel 72 cylinder (64.7 cubic feet).
In some operations there may be no clear-cut choice of which diving technique to
use. Selecting a diving technique may depend upon availability of equipment or
trained personnel. The following comparison of scuba and surface-supplied tech-
niques highlights the significant differences between the methods and outlines the
effect these differences will have on planning.
6-7.2
Operational Characteristics of Scuba.
The term scuba refers to open-circuit air
scuba unless otherwise noted. The main advantages of scuba are mobility, depth
flexibility and control, portability, and reduced requirement for surface support.
The main disadvantages are limited depth, limited duration, lack of voice commu-
nications (unless equipped with a through-water communications system), limited
environmental protection, remoteness from surface assistance, and the negative
psychological and physiological problems associated with isolation and direct
exposure to the underwater environment.
6-7.2.1
Mobility.
The scuba diver is not hindered by bulky or heavy equipment and can
cover a considerable distance, with an even greater range through the use of diver
propulsion vehicles (DPVs), moving freely in any direction. However, the scuba
diver shall be able to ascend directly to the surface in case of emergency.
WARNING Scuba equipment is not authorized for use in enclosed space divin
g
.
6-7.2.2
Buoyancy.
Scuba equipment is designed to have nearly neutral buoyancy when in
use, permitting the diver to change or maintain depth with ease. This allows the
scuba diver to work at any level in the water column.
6-7.2.3
Portability.
The portability and ease with which scuba can be employed are
distinct advantages. Scuba equipment can be transported easily and put into opera-
tion with minimum delay. Scuba offers a flexible and economical method for
accomplishing a range of tasks.
6-7.2.4
Operational Limitations.
Divers shall adhere to the operational limitations
contained in Figure 6-14. Bottom time is limited by the scuba’s fixed air supply,
which is depleted more rapidly when diving deep or working hard.
6-7.2.5
Environmental Protection.
The scuba diver is not as well protected from cold or
from contact with marine plants and animals as a diver in surface-supplied gear,
and is more easily swept along by current.
CHAPTER 6 — Operational Planning 6-25
6-7.3
Operational Characteristics of SSDS.
Surface-supplied diving systems can be
divided into two major categories: lightweight full face mask (MK 20), and deep-
sea (MK 21) gear.
6-7.3.1
Mobility.
Surface-supplied gear allows the diver almost as much mobility as
scuba. The primary use for deep-sea gear is bottom work in depths up to 190 fsw.
6-7.3.2
Buoyancy.
The buoyancy associated with SSDS varies with the diving dress
selected. Variable Volume Dry Suit (VVDS) provides the greatest buoyancy
control (see paragraph 7-3.1.2), making it a desirable technique for working on
muddy bottoms, conducting jetting or tunneling, or working where the reaction
forces of tools are high.
6-7.3.3
Operational Limitations.
Divers using surface supplied gear are restricted to the
operational limitations described in Figure 6-14. Additional limitations of using
surface-supplied gear includes additional topside support personnel and lengthy
predive and postdive procedures.
6-7.3.4
Environmental Protection.
Surface-supplied diving systems can offer the diver
increased thermal protection when used with a Hot Water or VVDS. The MK 21
helmet can increase protection of the divers head. Because the divers negative
buoyancy is easily controlled, an SSDS allows diving in areas with strong
currents.
6-8
SELECT EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES
6-8.1
Equipment Authorized for Navy Use.
Equipment procured for use in the U.S.
Navy has been tested under laboratory and field conditions to ensure that it will
perform according to design specifications. A vast array of equipment and tools is
available for use in diving operations. The NAVSEA/00C Diving Equipment
Authorized for U.S. Navy Use (ANU) list identifies much of this equipment and
categorizes diving equipment authorized for U.S. Navy use.
6-8.2
Air Supply.
The quality of divers breathing air is vitally important. Air supplies
provided to the diver in tanks or through a compressor shall meet five basic
criteria.
1.
Air shall conform to standards for diving air purity found in sections 4-3 and
4-4.
2.
Flow to the diver must be sufficient. Refer to the appropriate equipment oper-
ations and maintenance manual for flow requirements.
3.
Adequate overbottom pressure shall be maintained at the dive station.
4.
Adequate air supply shall be available to support the duration and depth of the
dive (see paragraph 7-4.1 for scuba; paragraph 8-2.2.2 for MK 21).
5.
A secondary air supply shall be available for surface-supplied diving.
6-26 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 2
6-8.3
Diving Craft and Platforms.
Regardless of the technique being supported, craft
used for diving operations shall:
Be seaworthy
Include required lifesaving and other safety gear
Have a reliable engine (unless it is a moored platform or barge)
Provide ample room for the divers to dress
Provide adequate shelter and working area for the support crew
Be able to carry safely all equipment required for the operation
Have a well-trained crew
Other support equipment—including barges, tugs, floating cranes or vessels and
aircraft for area search—may be needed, depending on the type of operation. The
need for additional equipment should be anticipated as far in advance as possible.
6-8.3.1
Deep-Sea Salvage/Rescue Diving Platforms.
Auxiliary Rescue/Salvage Ship (ARS) (Safeguard Class)
. The mission of the
ARS ship is to assist disabled ships, debeach stranded vessels, fight fires
alongside other ships, lift heavy objects, recover submerged objects, tow other
vessels, and perform manned diving operations. The ARS class ships carry a
complement of divers to perform underwater ship husbandry tasks and salvage
operations as well as underwater search and recovery. This class of vessel is
equipped for all air diving techniques. Onboard equipment allows diving with
air to a depth of 190 fsw.
Submarine Tender (AS)
. U.S. submarine tenders are designed specifically for
servicing nuclear-powered submarines. Submarine tenders are fitted with a
recompression chamber used for hyperbaric treatments. Submarine tenders
support underwater ship husbandry and maintenance and security swims.
Fleet Ocean Tug (T-ATF)
. T-ATFs are operated by the Military Sealift Com-
mand. Civilian crews are augmented with military communications and diving
detachments. In addition to towing, these large ocean-going tugs serve as sal-
vage and diving platforms.
Diving Tender (YDT)
. These vessels are used to support shallow-water diving
operations. Additionally, a wide variety of Standard Navy Dive Boats
(SNDB), LCM-8, LCM-6, 50-foot work boats, and other yard craft have been
fitted with surface-supplied dive systems.
6-8.3.2
Small Craft.
Scuba operations are normally conducted from small craft. These can
range in size and style from an inflatable rubber raft with an outboard engine to a
small landing craft. If divers are operating from a large ship or diving float, a small
boat must be ready as a rescue craft in the event a surfacing diver is in trouble
some distance from the support site. A small boat used by scuba divers must be
able to slip its moorings quickly and move to a diver needing assistance.
CHAPTER 6 — Operational Planning 6-27
6-9
SELECT AND ASSEMBLE THE DIVING TEAM
When planning diving assignments and matching the qualifications and experi-
ence of diving personnel to specific requirements of the operation, a thorough
knowledge of the duties, responsibilities and relationships of the various members
of the diving team is essential. The diving team may include the Diving Officer,
Master Diver, Diving Supervisor, Diving Medical Officer, divers qualified in
various techniques and equipment, support personnel (tenders—qualified divers if
possible), recorder, and medical personnel, as indicated by the type of operation
(Figure 6-15). Other members of the ship’s company, when properly instructed,
provide support in varying degrees in such roles as boat crew, winch operators,
and line handlers.
6-9.1
Manning Levels.
The size of the diving team may vary with the operation,
depending upon the type of equipment being used, the number of divers needed to
complete the mission, and the depth. Other factors, such as weather, planned
length of the mission, the nature of the objective, and the availability of various
resources will also influence the size of the team. The minimum number of
personnel required on station for each particular type of diving equipment is
provided in Figure 6-16. The minimum levels shall be maintained; levels should
be increased as necessary to meet anticipated operational conditions and
situations.
Figure 6-15.
MK 21 Dive Requiring Two Divers. The team consists of on
e
Supervisor, two divers, a standby diver, one tender per diver, comms and log
s
operator, and extra personnel (as required).
6-28 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 2
MINIMUM MANNING LEVELS FOR AIR DIVING
EOD Scuba Scuba Operations Surface-Supplied Operations
Sin
g
le
Diver
Buddy
Pair
Sin
g
le
Diver
Buddy
Pair
Divers Helmet
MK 21 MOD 1
MK 20
MOD 0
Divin
g
Supervisor 1 1 1 1 1 1
Comms and Lo
g
s (a) (a) (a) (a) 1 1
Console Operator (j) (j)
Diver 1 (c) 2 (c) 1 (b) (c) 2 (b) (c) 1 (b) 1 (b)
Standby Diver 1 (c) 1 (c) 1 (c) 1 (c) 1 (k) 1 (k)
Diver Tender (b, c) 1 (d) 1 1 1
Standby Diver Ten-
der
(i) (i) (i) (i) 1 1
Tot al 4
(f) (h)
4
(f,h)
4
(e,
g
,h,i)
4
(h)
6 6
(
g
)
WARNING
These are the minimum personnel levels re
q
uired, below which divin
g
opera-
tions are not permitted. Circumstances ma
y
re
q
uire that these minimum per-
sonnel levels be increased so the divin
g
operations can be conducted safel
y
.
NOTES:
(a) Divin
g
Supervisor may fill requirement for Comms and Lo
g
s for scuba operations.
(b) Each additional surface-supplied diver or tended scuba diver will require an additional tender. The number of surface-sup-
plied divers may be increased as necessary to the extent that the air system can support them.
(c) Scuba divers, except SPECWAR divers and divers involved in Limpet operations (see para
g
raph 6-4.5 and para
g
raph
7-8.2 for more information), must be surface tended if direct ascent to surface is not available, such as when divin
g
under
the bil
g
e keel. Situations may require that a diver be tended by a second diver situated at the bil
g
e keel .
(d) The EOD Divin
g
Officer may authorize a sin
g
le untethered EOD diver when disarmin
g
live ordnance in an operational
(non-trainin
g
) situation.
(e) Submarines that have only three qualified scuba divers assi
g
ned are authorized to conduct dives with a non-diver Com-
missioned Officer actin
g
as the Divin
g
Supervisor. In all cases, submarines will endeavor to obtain the prerequisite number
of qualified divers to support their mission. All other commands are to conduct all scuba divin
g
operations with a minimum
of four divers.
(f) EOD Divin
g
Officers are required for all EOD operations involvin
g
Render Safe Procedures (RSP).
(
g
) Mannin
g
levels for Dilbert Dunkers and Device 9D5 pool pilot trainin
g
that require safety scuba divers are covered by di-
rectives promul
g
ated by NAWSTP Safety Diver Operations.
(h) Chase boat is required for scuba divin
g
operations when conditions exist where the diver could be displaced from the dive
site (i.e. bottom search in a stron
g
current or a lon
g
-duration swim).
(i) If the standby diver is deployed, the Divin
g
Supervisor shall tend the standby diver.
(j) Comms and Lo
g
s may serve as Console Operator.
(k) Standby diver can be deployed as a workin
g
diver in accordance with para
g
raph 6-9.8.2.
Figure 6-16.
Minimum Personnel Levels for Air Divin
g
Stations.
CHAPTER 6 — Operational Planning 6-29
6-9.2
Commanding Officer.
The ultimate responsibility for the safe and successful
conduct of all diving operations rests with the Commanding Officer. The
Commanding Officers responsibilities for diving operations are defined and
specific authority is confirmed by the provisions of U.S. Navy Regulations and
other fleet, force, or command regulations. To ensure diving operations are effi-
ciently conducted, the Commanding Officer delegates appropriate authority to
selected members of the command who, with subordinate personnel, make up the
diving team.
6-9.3
Diving Officer.
6-9.3.1
Command Diving Officer.
The Command Diving Officers primary responsibility
is the safe conduct of all diving operations within the command. The Command
Diving Officer will become thoroughly familiar with all command diving tech-
niques and have a detailed knowledge of all applicable regulations and is
responsible for all operational and administrative duties associated with the
command diving program. The Command Diving Officer is designated in writing
by the Commanding Officer. Although preferably a qualified diver, any commis-
sioned officer, or in the absence of a PQS qualified commissioned officer, a
Master Diver, may be assigned as the Command Diving Officer.
6-9.3.2
Watchstation Diving Officer.
Personnel assigned as the Watchstation Diving
Officer are responsible to the Commanding Officer for the safe and successful
conduct of the diving operation. The Watchstation Diving Officer provides overall
supervision of diving operations, ensuring strict adherence to procedures and
precautions. Although preferably a qualified diver, any PQS qualified commis-
sioned officer or Master Diver may be assigned this watchstation. The
Watchstation Diving Officer must be designated in writing by the Commanding
Officer.
6-9.4
Master Diver.
6-9.4.1
Master Diver Responsibilities.
The Master Diver is the most qualified person to
supervise air and mixed-gas dives (using scuba and surface-supplied diving equip-
ment) and recompression treatments (Figure 6-17). He is directly responsible to
the Commanding Officer, via the Diving Officer, for the safe conduct of all phases
of diving operations. The Master Diver manages preventive and corrective mainte-
nance on diving equipment, support systems, salvage machinery, handling sys-
tems, and submarine rescue equipment. Training and requalification of divers
attached to the command is conducted by the Master Diver, who also ensures that
divers are trained in emergency procedures. The Master Diver recommends to the
Commanding Officer, via the Diving Officer, which enlisted divers are qualified
to serve as Diving Supervisors. The Master Diver oversees the efforts of the Div-
ing Supervisor and provides advice and technical expertise. If circumstances war-
rant, the Master Diver shall relieve the Diving Supervisor and assume control of
the dive station. In the absence of a Diving Officer, the Master Diver can assume
the duties and responsibilities of the Diving Officer.
6-30 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 2
6-9.4.2
Master Diver Qualifications.
The
Master Diver has completed Master
Diver evaluation course (CIN A-433-
0019) successfully and is proficient in
the operation of Navy-approved under-
water breathing equipment, support
systems, and recompression chambers.
He is also trained in diagnosing and
treating diving injuries and illnesses.
The Master Diver is thoroughly
familiar with operating and emergency
procedures for diving systems, and
possesses a working knowledge of gas
mixing and analysis, computations,
salvage theory and methods, subma-
rine rescue procedures, towing, and
underwater ship husbandry. The Master
Diver shall possess a comprehensive
knowledge of the scope and application
of all Naval instructions and publica-
tions pertaining to diving, and shall
ensure that logs and reports are main-
tained and submitted as required.
6-9.5
Diving Supervisor.
While the Master Diver is in charge of the overall diving
operation, the Diving Supervisor is in charge of the actual diving operation for a
particular dive or series of dives. Diving operations shall not be conducted without
the presence of the Diving Supervisor.
6-9.5.1
Predive Responsibilities.
The Diving Supervisor shall be included in preparing
the operational plans. The Diving Supervisor shall consider contingencies, deter-
mine equipment requirements, recommend diving assignments, and establish
back-up requirements for the operation. The Diving Supervisor shall be familiar
with all divers on the team and shall evaluate the qualifications and physical
fitness of the divers selected for each particular job. The Diving Supervisor
inspects all equipment and conducts predive briefings of personnel.
6-9.5.2
Responsibilities While Operation is Underway.
While the operation is underway,
the Diving Supervisor monitors progress; debriefs divers; updates instructions to
subsequent divers; and ensures that the Master Diver, Diving Officer,
Commanding Officer, and other personnel as necessary are advised of progress
and of any changes to the original plan. The Diving Supervisor should not hesitate
to call upon the technical advice and expertise of the Master Diver during the
conduct of the dive operation.
6-9.5.3
Postdive Responsibilities.
When the mission has been completed, the Diving
Supervisor gathers appropriate data, analyzes the results of the mission, prepares
reports to be submitted to higher authority, and ensures that required records are
Figure 6-17.
Master Diver Supervising
Recompression Treatment
CHAPTER 6 — Operational Planning 6-31
completed. These records may range from equipment logs to individual diving
records.
6-9.5.4
Diving Supervisor Qualifications.
The Diving Supervisor may be commissioned
or enlisted depending on the size of the operation and the availability of qualified
personnel. When qualifying a Diving Supervisor, selection is based on knowledge,
experience, level of training, and the competence of the available personnel in the
following order:
1.
Master Diver
2.
First Class Diver/Saturation Diver/Seal Diver/EOD Diver
3.
Diving Medical Technician
4.
Second Class Diver
5.
Scuba Diver
Regardless of rank, the Diving Supervisor shall be a qualified diver of demon-
strated ability and experience. The Diving Supervisor shall be designated in
writing by the Commanding Officer. Diving Supervisors under instruction shall
stand their watches under the supervision of a qualified Diving Supervisor.
6-9.6
Diving Medical Officer.
The Diving Medical Officer defines the proper course of
medical action during medical emergencies. The Diving Medical Officer provides
on-site medical care for divers as conditions arise and ensures that diving
personnel receive proper attention before, during, and after dives. The Diving
Medical Officer may modify recompression treatment tables, with the specific
concurrence of the Commanding Officer. A Diving Medical Officer is required on
site for all air dives deeper than 190 fsw, when the maximum working depth of the
diving apparatus may be exceeded, or for exceptional exposure air dives.
6-9.7
Diving Personnel.
6-9.7.1
Diving Personnel Responsibilities.
While working, the diver shall keep topside
personnel informed of conditions on the bottom, progress of the task, and of any
developing problems that may indicate the need for changes to the plan or a call
for assistance from other divers. To ensure safe conduct of the dive, the diver shall
always obey a signal from the surface and repeat all commands when using voice
communications. The diver is responsible for the diving gear worn and shall
ensure that it is complete and in good repair.
6-9.7.2
Diving Personnel Qualifications.
Military divers shall be qualified and desig-
nated in accordance with instructions issued by the Naval Personnel Command
(NPC) or as appropriate by USMC, U.S. Army, or U.S. Air Force orders. Civilian
divers diving under military cognizance must meet the qualifications listed in
Chapter 5. The diver selected for an operation shall be qualified for the diving
technique used, the equipment involved, and for diving to the depth required.
Diving personnel assigned to the Navy Experimental Diving Unit (NEDU) and
Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory (NSMRL) are exempt from such
requirements as they are assigned as experimental diving test subjects and may be
employed in experimental dive profiles as required within approved test protocols.
6-32 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 2
6-9.8
Standby Diver.
A standby diver
with a tender is required for all div-
ing operations. The standby diver
need not be equipped with the same
equipment as the primary diver (ex-
cept as otherwise specified), but
shall have equivalent depth and op-
erational capabilities. Scuba shall
not be used for the standby diver for
surface-supplied diving operations.
6-9.8.1
Standby Diver Qualifications.
The
standby diver is a fully qualified
diver, assigned for back-up or to
provide emergency assistance, and
is ready to enter the water immedi-
ately. For surface-supplied opera-
tions, the standby diver shall be
dressed to the following points, MK
20 or MK 21 MOD 1, with strain relief connected to the harness. Under certain
conditions, the Diving Supervisor may require that the helmet be worn. A standby
scuba diver shall don all equipment and be checked by the Diving Supervisor. The
standby diver may then remove the mask and fins and have them ready to don im-
mediately for quick deployment. For safety reasons at the discretion of the Diving
Supervisor, the standby diver may remove the tank. The standby diver receives the
same briefings and instructions as the working diver, monitors the progress of the
dive, and is fully prepared to respond if called upon for assistance. The scuba
standby diver shall be equipped with an octopus rig.
6-9.8.2
Deploying the Standby Diver as a Working Diver.
The standby diver may be de-
ployed as a working diver provided all of the following conditions are met:
1.
Surface-supplied no-decompression dive of 60 fsw or less.
2.
Same job/location, e.g., working on port and starboard propellers on the same
vessel:
Prior to deploying the standby diver, the work area shall be determined to
be free of hazards (i.e., suctions, discharges) by the first diver on the job
site.
When working in ballast tanks or confined spaces, the standby diver may
be deployed as a working diver, but both divers shall be tended by a third
diver who is outside the confined space (also see paragraph 6-4.9).
NOTE The standby diver shall remain on deck ready for deployment when
salva
g
e operations divin
g
is bein
g
done.
Figure 6-18.
Standby Diver.
CHAPTER 6 — Operational Planning 6-33
6-9.9
Buddy Diver.
A buddy diver is the divers partner for a scuba operation. The
buddy divers are jointly responsible for the assigned mission. Each diver keeps
track of depth and time during the dive. Each diver shall watch out for the safety
and well-being of his buddy and shall be alert for symptoms of nitrogen narcosis,
decompression sickness, and carbon dioxide build up. A diver shall keep his
buddy within sight and not leave his buddy alone except to obtain additional assis-
tance in an emergency. If visibility is limited, a buddy line shall be used to
maintain contact and communication. If scuba divers get separated and cannot
locate each other, both divers shall surface immediately.
6-9.10
Diver Tender.
6-9.10.1
Diver Tender Responsibilities.
The tender is the surface member of the diving
team who works closely with the diver on the bottom. At the start of a dive, the
tender checks the divers equipment and topside air supply for proper operation
and dresses the diver. Once the diver is in the water, the tender constantly tends the
lines to eliminate excess slack or tension (certain UWSH tasking may preclude
this requirement, e.g., working in submarine ballast tanks, shaft lamination, dry
habitat welding, etc.). The tender exchanges line-pull signals with the diver, keeps
the Diving Supervisor informed of the line-pull signals and amount of diving hose/
tending line over the side and remains alert for any signs of an emergency.
6-9.10.2
Diver Tender Qualifications.
The tender should be a qualified diver. When
circumstances require the use of a non-diver as a tender, the Diving Supervisor
shall ensure that the tender has been thoroughly instructed in the required duties. If
a substitute tender shall be employed during an operation, the Diving Supervisor
must make certain that the substitute is adequately briefed before assuming duties.
6-9.11
Recorder.
The recorder shall be a qualified diver. The recorder maintains work-
sheets, fills out the diving log for the operation, and records the divers descent
time, depth of dive, and bottom time. The recorder reports to the Diving Super-
visor the ascent time, first stop, and time required at the decompression stop. In
scuba operations, the Diving Supervisor may assume the duties of the recorder.
The recorder is required to have on hand a copy of the U.S. Navy Standard
Decompression Tables being used. When decompression begins, the schedule
selected by the Diving Supervisor is recorded on the chart and log. The recorder
keeps all members of the team advised of the decompression requirements of the
divers. In scuba operations, the Diving Supervisor may assume duties as the
recorder.
6-9.12
Medical Personnel.
Diving Medical Officers and Diving Medical Technicians are
given special training in hyperbaric medicine and in diving. They provide medical
advice and treatment to diving personnel. They also instruct members of the
diving team in first aid procedures and participate in diving operations when the
presence of diving medical personnel is indicated, as when particularly hazardous
operations are being conducted.
Diving medical personnel evaluate the fitness of divers before operations begin
and are prepared to handle any emergencies which might arise. They also observe
6-34 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 2
the condition of other support personnel and are alert for signs of fatigue, overex-
posure, and heat exhaustion.
6-9.13
Other Support Personnel.
Other support personnel may include almost any
member of the command when assigned to duties that support diving operations.
Some personnel need specific indoctrination. Small-Boat operators shall under-
stand general diving procedures, know the meanings of signals, and be aware of
the mission objectives. Other personnel, such as winch operators or deck crew,
might interact with the operation directly, but only when under the control of the
Diving Supervisor. Engineering personnel may be directed to secure overboard
discharges and lock the shafts; a sonar operator might be required to secure equip-
ment and put a Do Not Energize tag on the power switch (see Figure 6-20a for a
detailed Ship Repair Safety Checklist).
The Officer of the Deck (OOD) or Command Duty Officer (CDO) is responsible
to the Commanding Officer for the operation and safety of the ship and crew
during the watch. He shall be concerned with the activities of the diving team. The
OOD/CDO shall stay informed of the progress of the operation, of any changes to
the original plan and shall be notified as far in advance as possible of any special
requirements. The Officer of the Deck or Command Duty Officer shall be alert for
any shifting of the moor or changing weather/sea conditions. He shall inform the
Diving Officer and/or Diving Supervisor of any changes in these conditions.
6-9.14
Cross-Training and Substitution.
Each member of the diving team should be
qualified to act in any position on the team. Because it is probable that substitu-
tions will be made at some point during a lengthy mission, dive plans and diving
schedules should organize personnel and work objectives so that experienced
personnel will always be available on site. All personnel who participate in the
operation should be included in initial briefings.
6-9.15
Physical Condition.
Diving candidates shall meet the specific physical require-
ments for divers set forth by the Commander Naval Medical Command and pass a
physical screening test as outlined in MILPERSMAN Article 1410380. Once
qualified, the diver is responsible for maintaining good health and top physical
condition.
Reference NAVMEDCOMINST 6200.15 (series) to provide guidance on suspen-
sion of diving duty of pregnant servicewomen.
Medical personnel assigned to a diving unit shall evaluate the day-to-day condi-
tion of each diver and the Diving Supervisor shall verify the fitness of each diver
immediately before a dive. Any symptom such as cough, nasal congestion,
apparent fatigue, emotional stress, skin or ear infection is reason for placing the
diver on the binnacle list until the problem is corrected.
Physical condition is often best judged by the diver who is obligated to report to
the Diving Supervisor when not feeling fit to dive. A diver who, for any reason,
does not want to make a dive should not be forced. A diver who regularly declines
diving assignments shall be disqualified as a diver.
CHAPTER 6 — Operational Planning 6-35
6-9.16
Underwater Salvage or Construction Demolition Personnel.
Underwater sal-
vage demolition personnel are trained in underwater precision explosives
techniques and hold Navy Enlisted Classification (NEC) 5375. Salvage/Construc-
tion Demolition Diver personnel shall be currently certified and designated in
accordance with the requirements specified in the OPNAVINST 8023.2 series.
6-9.16.1
Blasting Plan.
The senior Salvage/Construction Demolition Diver NEC 5375 is
responsible for providing the Commanding Officer with a comprehensive and
written blasting plan. At a minimum, the blasting plan contains:
Demolition team organization
Work description with alternatives
Range standard operating procedures
Prefiring procedures
Postfiring procedures
Area security plan
Misfire procedures
Personnel and equipment casualty procedures
Blasting sequence of events
The NEC 5375 should direct all phases of demolition operations using only
approved operating and safety procedures. The NEC 5375 shall ensure the opera-
tion is not allowed to proceed until receiving specific approval from the Diving
Supervisor and shall take charge of all misfires, ensuring they are handled in
accordance with the approved plan.
6-9.16.2
Explosive Handlers.
All divers who handle explosives shall be trained and certi-
fied in accordance with the OPNAVINST 8023.2 series.
6-10
OSHA REQUIREMENTS FOR U.S NAVY CIVILIAN DIVING
U.S. Navy Civilian Divers are governed by the provisions of the U.S. Navy Diving
Program, yet they must also comply with U.S. Government Occupational Safety
and Health Administration (OSHA) diving standards, delineated in 29 CFR Part
1910 Subpart T; Subj: Commercial Diving Operations. U.S. Navy Civilian Divers
are identified as all permanent Navy employees who have been formally trained at
an approved U.S. Navy diving school as either a scuba diver, Second Class diver,
or First Class diver. Commercial divers contracted by the Navy who are not
permanent government employees are not subject to these provisions.
Most directives of the U.S. Navy Diving Program provide parallel requirements,
or are similar enough not to be considered of substantive difference. Several
requirements of OSHA do, however, exceed those delineated for U.S. Navy divers
and must be identified to ensure compliance by USN civilian divers to both stan-
dards. Therefore, the following restrictions, in addition to all other requirements
addressed in this manual, apply to USN civilian divers:
6-10.1
Scuba Diving (Air) Restriction.
6-36 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 2
1.
Scuba diving shall not be conducted:
To depths deeper than 130 fsw
To depths deeper than 100 fsw unless a recompression chamber is on station
2.
All scuba cylinder manifolds shall be equipped with a manual reserve (J
valve), or an independent reserve cylinder gas supply with a separate
regulator.
3.
A scuba cylinder submersible pressure gauge shall be worn by each diver.
6-10.2
Surface-Supplied Air Diving Restrictions.
1.
Surface-supplied air diving shall not be conducted to depths greater than 190
fsw.
2.
Dives shall be limited to in-water decompression times of less than 120
minutes.
3.
An emergency gas supply (come-home bottle) is required for any dive greater
than 60 fsw planned decompression dives or for which direct access to the sur-
face is not available.
6-10.3
Mixed-Gas Diving Restrictions.
All mixed-gas diving shall be limited to:
A maximum depth of 220 fsw
Less than 120 minutes total in-water decompression time
Having a recompression chamber on station
6-10.4
Recompression Chamber Requirements.
1.
An on-station recompression chamber is defined as a certified and ready
chamber on the dive site.
2.
A recompression chamber shall be on station for all planned decompression
dives or dives deeper than 100 fsw.
3.
Civilian divers shall remain at the location of a manned recompression cham-
ber for 1 hour after surfacing from a dive that requires a recompression
chamber on station.
6-11
ORGANIZE AND SCHEDULE OPERATIONS
6-11.1
Task Planning and Scheduling.
All phases of an operation are important. A
common failure when planning an operation is to place excessive emphasis on the
actual dive phases, while not fully considering predive and postdive activities.
Another failure is to treat operations of a recurring nature with an indifference to
safety that comes with overfamiliarity. In developing a detailed task-by-task
schedule for an operation, the following points shall be considered.
CHAPTER 6 — Operational Planning 6-37
The schedule shall allocate sufficient time for preparation, transit to the site,
rendezvous with other vessels or units, and establishing a secure mooring.
Bottom time is always at a premium, and all factors that shall affect bottom
time shall be carefully considered. These include depth, decompression, num-
ber of divers available, support craft size, and surface and underwater
environmental conditions.
The number and profile of repetitive dives in a given time period are limited.
This subject is discussed in Chapter 10.
Plans may include the option to work night and day; however, there is an
increased risk of a diving mishap from fatigue.
The level of personnel support depends on the diving techniques selected (see
Minimum Manning Levels, Figure 6-16).
In planning tasks, non-diving topside support personnel shall be selected care-
fully, especially those who are not members of the diving team.
Any schedule must be flexible to accommodate unexpected complications,
delays, and changing conditions.
The Diving Supervisor shall anticipate difficulties and be prepared to either
overcome them or find alternative methods to circumvent them.
If divers have been inactive and operating conditions permit, work-up dives
should be conducted in-water or in the recompression chamber.
6-11.2
Postdive Tasks.
A diving operation is completed when the objective has been
met, the diving team demobilized, and records and reports are filed. Time shall be
allocated for:
Recovering, cleaning, inspecting, maintaining, repairing, and stowing all
equipment
Disposing materials brought up during the operation
Debriefing divers and other team members
Analyzing the operation, as planned and as actually carried out
Restocking expended materials
Ensuring the readiness of the team to respond to the next assignment
6-38 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 2
6-12
BRIEF THE DIVING TEAM
6-12.1
Establish Mission Objective.
The Master Diver or the Diving Supervisor shall
brief the team on the overall mission and the aspects of the operation necessary to
safely achieve the objective. Major points of discussion include:
1.
Clear, brief statement of the mission objective
2.
Dominant factors that may determine mission outcome (i.e., environment,
enemy/friendly actions, and hazards)
3.
All tasks required to accomplish the mission
4.
Time factors that may prevail
5.
Any changes or augmentations of the dive plan
Prior to starting a dive mission or dive day, coordination with other commands
and/or shipboard departments shall be accomplished.
6-12.2
Identify Tasks and Procedures.
A briefing may be elaborate or simple. For
complex operations, briefing with charts, slides, and diagrams may be required.
For most operations, the briefing need not be complex and may be an informal
meeting. The briefing shall present a breakdown of the dive objective, primary
tasks, diving procedures, and related work procedures for the mission or dive day.
Prompt debriefing of divers returning to the surface provides the Diving Super-
visor with information that may influence or alter the next phase of the operation.
Divers should be questioned about the progress of the work, bottom conditions
and anticipated problems. They should also be asked for suggestions for imme-
diate changes.
6-12.3
Review Diving Procedures.
Diving and work procedures to be used for the task
at hand shall be reviewed during the briefing. The Diving Safety and Planning
Checklist (Figure 6-19a), Ship Repair Safety Checklist for Diving (Figure 6-20a)
and the Surface-Supplied Diving Operations Predive Checklist (Figure 6-21a)
support control of diving operations. These checklists may be tailored to specific
missions and environmental circumstances.
6-12.4
Assignment of Personnel.
All personnel assignments shall be reviewed and veri-
fied to ensure properly trained personnel are assigned to operations.
6-12.5
Assistance and Emergencies.
In any diving operation, three types of assistance
may be required:
1.
Additional equipment, personnel, supplies, or services
2.
Clarification, authorization, or decisions from higher command
3.
Emergency assistance in the event of an accident or serious illness
CHAPTER 6 — Operational Planning 6-39
DIVING SAFETY AND PLANNING CHECKLIST
(Sheet 1 of 4)
STEPS IN PLANNING OF DIVING OPERATIONS
Detailed, advanced plannin
g
is the foundation of divin
g
safet
y
.
A. ANALYZE THE MISSION FOR SAFETY.
__ Ensure mission ob
j
ective is defined.
__ Determine that non-divin
g
means of mission accomplishment have been considered
and eliminated as inappropriate.
__ Coordinate emer
g
enc
y
assistance.
__ Review relevant Naval Warfare Publications
(
NWP
)
and OPNAV instructions.
B. IDENTIFY AND ANALYZE POTENTIAL HAZARDS.
__
Natural Hazards:
1. Atmospheric:
__ Exposure of personnel to extreme conditions
__ Adverse exposure of e
q
uipment and supplies to elements
__ Dela
y
s or disruption caused b
y
weather
2. Surface:
__ Sea sickness
__ Water entr
y
and exit
__ Handlin
g
of heav
y
e
q
uipment in rou
g
h seas
__ Maintainin
g
location in tides and currents
__ Ice, flotsam, kelp, and petroleum in the water
__ Dela
y
s or disruption caused b
y
sea state
3. Underwater and Bottom:
__ Depth which exceeds divin
g
limits or limits of available e
q
uipment
__ Exposure to cold temperatures
__ Dan
g
erous marine life
__ Tides and currents
__ Limited visibilit
y
__ Bottom obstructions
__ Ice
(
underwater pressure rid
g
es, loss of entr
y
hole, loss of orientation, etc.
)
__ Dan
g
erous bottom conditions
(
mud, drop-offs, etc.
)
__
On-Site Hazards:
__ Local marine traffic or other conflictin
g
naval operations
__ Other conflictin
g
commercial operations
__ Hi
g
h-powered, active sonar
__ Radiation contamination and other pollution
(
chemical, sewer outfalls, etc.
)
__
Mission Hazards:
__ Decompression sickness
__ Communications problems
__ Drownin
g
__ Other trauma
(
in
j
uries
)
__ Hostile action
__
Object Hazards:
__ Entrapment and entan
g
lement
__ Shiftin
g
or workin
g
of ob
j
ect
__ Explosives or other ordnance
Figure 6-19a.
Divin
g
Safet
y
and Plannin
g
Checklist (sheet 1 of 4).
6-40 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 2
DIVING SAFETY AND PLANNING CHECKLIST
(Sheet 2 of 4)
C. SELECT EQUIPMENT, PERSONNEL and EMERGENCY PROCEDURES.
__
Diving Personnel:
__ 1. Assi
g
n a complete and properl
y
q
ualified Divin
g
Team.
__ 2. Assi
g
n the ri
g
ht man to the ri
g
ht task.
__ 3. Verif
y
that each member of the Divin
g
Team is properl
y
trained and
q
ualified for the
e
q
uipment and depths involved.
__ 4. Determine that each man is ph
y
sicall
y
fit to dive, pa
y
in
g
attention to:
__
g
eneral condition and an
y
evidence of fati
g
ue
__record of last medical exam
__ears and sinuses
__severe cold or flu
__use of stimulants or intoxicants
__ 5. Observe divers for emotional readiness to dive:
__motivation and professional attitude
__stabilit
y
(
no noticeabl
y
unusual or erratic behavior
)
__
Diving Equipment:
__ 1. Verif
y
that divin
g
g
ear chosen and divin
g
techni
q
ues are ade
q
uate and authorized for
mission and particular task.
__ 2. Verif
y
that e
q
uipment and divin
g
techni
q
ue are proper for depth involved.
__ 3. Verif
y
that life support e
q
uipment has been tested & approved for U.S. Nav
y
use.
__ 4. Determine that all necessar
y
support e
q
uipment and tools are readil
y
available and are
best for accomplishin
g
j
ob efficientl
y
and safel
y
.
__ 5. Determine that all related support e
q
uipment such as winches, boats, cranes, floats, etc.
are operable, safe and under control of trained personnel.
__ 6. Check that all divin
g
e
q
uipment has been properl
y
maintained
(
with appropriate records
)
and is in full operatin
g
condition.
__
Provide for Emergency Equipment:
__ 1. Obtain suitable communications e
q
uipment with sufficient capabilit
y
to reach outside help;
check all communications for proper operation.
__ 2. Verif
y
that a recompression chamber is read
y
for use, or notif
y
the nearest command with
one that its use ma
y
be re
q
uired within a
g
iven timeframe.
__ 3. Verif
y
that a completel
y
stocked first aid kit is at hand.
__ 4. If ox
yg
en will be used as standb
y
first aid, verif
y
that the tank is full and properl
y
pressurized, and that masks, valves, and other accessories are full
y
operable.
__ 5. If a resuscitator will be used, check apparatus for function.
__ 6. Check that fire-fi
g
htin
g
e
q
uipment is readil
y
available and in full operatin
g
condition.
__ 7. Verif
y
that emer
g
enc
y
transportation is either standin
g
b
y
or on immediate call.
__
Establish Emergency Procedures:
__ 1. Know how to obtain medical assistance immediatel
y
.
__ 2. For each potential emer
g
enc
y
situation, assi
g
n specific tasks to the divin
g
team and
support personnel.
__ 3. Complete and post Emer
g
enc
y
Assistance Checklist; ensure that all personnel are
familiar with it.
__ 4. Verif
y
that an up-to-date cop
y
of U.S. Nav
y
Decompression Tables is available.
__ 5. Ensure that all divers, boat crews and other support personnel understand all diver hand
si
g
nals.
__ 6. Predetermine distress si
g
nals and call-si
g
ns.
Figure 6-19b.
Divin
g
Safet
y
and Plannin
g
Checklist (sheet 2 of 4).
CHAPTER 6 — Operational Planning 6-41
DIVING SAFETY AND PLANNING CHECKLIST
(Sheet 3 of 4)
__ 7. Ensure that all divers have removed an
y
thin
g
from their mouths on which the
y
mi
g
ht
choke durin
g
a dive
(g
um, dentures, tobacco
)
.
__ 8. Thorou
g
hl
y
drill all personnel in Emer
g
enc
y
Procedures, with particular attention to cross-
trainin
g
; drills should include:
Emer
g
enc
y
recompression Rapid undressin
g
Fire First aid
Rapid dressin
g
Embolism
Restoration of breathin
g
Near-drownin
g
Electric shock Blowup
Entrapment Lost diver
D. ESTABLISH SAFE DIVING OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES
__
Complete Planning, Organization, and Coordination Activities:
__ 1. Ensure that other means of accomplishin
g
mission have been considered before decidin
g
to use divers.
__ 2. Ensure that contin
g
enc
y
plannin
g
has been conducted.
__ 3. Carefull
y
state
g
oals and tasks of each mission and develop a flexible plan of operations
(
Dive Plan
)
.
__ 4. Completel
y
brief the divin
g
team and support personnel
(
para
g
raph 6-12
)
.
__ 5. Desi
g
nate a Master Diver or properl
y
q
ualified Divin
g
Supervisor to be in char
g
e of the
mission.
__ 6. Desi
g
nate a recorder/timekeeper and verif
y
that he understands his duties and responsi-
bilities.
__ 7. Determine the exact depth at the
j
ob-site throu
g
h the use of a lead line, pneumofathome-
ter, or commercial depth sounder.
__ 8. Verif
y
existence of an ade
q
uate suppl
y
of compressed air available for all planned divin
g
operations
plus an adequate reserve for emergencies
.
__ 9. Ensure that no operations or actions on part of divin
g
team, support personnel, techni-
cians, boat crew, winch operators, etc., take place without the knowled
g
e of and b
y
the
direct command of the Divin
g
Supervisor.
__ 10.All efforts must be made throu
g
h plannin
g
, briefin
g
, trainin
g
, or
g
anization, and other prep-
arations to minimize bottom time. Water depth and the condition of the diver
(
especiall
y
fati
g
ue
)
, rather than the amount of work to be done, shall
g
overn diver’s bottom time.
__ 11.Current decompression tables shall be on hand and shall be used in all plannin
g
and
schedulin
g
of divin
g
operations.
__ 12.Instruct all divers and support personnel not to cut an
y
lines until approved b
y
the Divin
g
Supervisor.
__ 13.Ensure that ship, boat, or divin
g
craft is securel
y
moored and in position to permit safest
and most efficient operations
(
exceptions are emer
g
enc
y
and critical ship repairs
)
.
__ 14.Verif
y
that, when usin
g
surface-supplied techni
q
ues, the ship, boat, or divin
g
craft has at
least a two-point moor.
__ 15.Ensure that, when conductin
g
SCUBA operations in hazardous conditions, a boat can be
q
uickl
y
cast off and moved to a diver in distress.
__
Perform Diving Safety Procedures, Establish Safety Measures:
__ 1. Ensure that each diver checks his own e
q
uipment in addition to checks made b
y
tenders,
technicians or other support personnel.
__ 2. Desi
g
nate a standb
y
diver for all divin
g
operations; standb
y
diver shall be dressed to the
necessar
y
level and read
y
to enter the water if needed.
__ 3. Assi
g
n budd
y
divers, when re
q
uired, for all scuba operations.
Figure 6-19c.
Divin
g
Safet
y
and Plannin
g
Checklist (sheet 3 of 4).
6-42 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 2
DIVING SAFETY AND PLANNING CHECKLIST
(Sheet 4 of 4)
__ 4. Take precautions to prevent divers from bein
g
fouled on bottom. If work is conducted
inside a wreck or other structure, assi
g
n a team of divers to accomplish task. One diver
enters wreck, the other tends his lines from point of entr
y
.
__ 5. When usin
g
explosives, take measures to ensure that no char
g
e shall be fired while
divers are in water.
__ 6. Use safet
y
procedures as outlined in relevant Naval publications for all U/W cuttin
g
and
weldin
g
operations.
__ 7. Brief all divers and deck personnel on the planned decompression schedules for each
particular dive. Check provisions for decompressin
g
the diver.
__ 8. Verif
y
that ship, boat, or divin
g
craft is displa
y
in
g
proper si
g
nals, fla
g
s, da
y
shapes, or
li
g
hts to indicate divin
g
operations are in pro
g
ress.
(
Consult publications
g
overnin
g
Inter-
national or Inland Rules, International/Inland local si
g
nals, and Nav
y
communications
instructions.
)
__ 9. Ensure that protection a
g
ainst harmful marine life has been provided.
(
See Appendix 5C.
)
__ 10.Check that the
q
ualit
y
of diver’s air suppl
y
is periodicall
y
and thorou
g
hl
y
tested to ensure
purit
y
.
__ 11.Thorou
g
hl
y
brief boat crew.
__ 12.Verif
y
that proper safet
y
and operational e
q
uipment is aboard small divin
g
boats or craft.
__
Notify Proper Parties that Dive Operations Are Ready to Commence:
__ 1. Divin
g
Officer
__ 2. Commandin
g
Officer
__ 3. Area Commander
__ 4. Officer of the Deck/Da
y
__ 5. Command Dut
y
Officer or Commandin
g
Officer of ships alon
g
side
__ 6. Brid
g
e, to ensure that ship’s personnel shall not:
__ turn the propeller or thrusters
__
g
et underwa
y
__ activate active sonar or other electronics
__ drop heav
y
items overboard
__ shift the moor
__ 7. Ship Dut
y
Officer, to ensure that ship’s personnel shall not:
__ activate sea dischar
g
es or suctions
__ operate bow or stern-planes or rudder
__ operate vents or torpedo shutters
__ turn propellers
__ 8. Other Interested Parties and Commands:
__ Harbor Master/Port Services Officer
__ Command Dut
y
Officers
__ Officers in tactical command
__ Co
g
nizant Nav
y
or
g
anizations
__ U.S. Coast Guard
(
if broadcast warnin
g
to civilians is re
q
uired
)
__ 9. Notif
y
facilities havin
g
recompression chambers and sources of emer
g
enc
y
transportation
that divin
g
operations are underwa
y
and their assistance ma
y
be needed.
Figure 6-19d.
Divin
g
Safet
y
and Plannin
g
Checklist (sheet 4 of 4).
CHAPTER 6 — Operational Planning 6-43
SHIP REPAIR SAFETY CHECKLIST FOR DIVING
(Sheet 1 of 2)
When divin
g
operations will involve underwater ship repairs, the followin
g
procedures and safet
y
mea-
sures are re
q
uired in addition to the Divin
g
Safet
y
Checklist.
SAFETY OVERVIEW
A. The Divin
g
Supervisor shall advise key personnel of the ship under
g
oin
g
repair:
1. OOD 4. OODs of ships alon
g
side
2. En
g
ineerin
g
Officer 5. Squadron Operations (when required)
3. CDO 6. Combat Systems Officer (when required)
B. The Divin
g
Supervisor shall request that OOD/Duty Officer of ship bein
g
repaired ensure that appropriate
equipment is secured and ta
gg
ed out.
C. The Divin
g
Supervisor shall request that OOD/Duty Officer advise him when action has been completed and
when divin
g
operations may commence.
D. When ready, the divin
g
Supervisor shall request that the ship display appropriate divin
g
si
g
nals and pass a
divin
g
activity advisory over the 1MC every 30 minutes. For example, “There are divers workin
g
over the side.
Do not operate any equipment, rotate screws, cycle rudder, planes or torpedo shutters, take suction from or
dischar
g
e to sea, blow or vent any tanks, activate sonar or underwater electrical equipment, open or close
any valves, or cycle trash disposal unit before checkin
g
with the Divin
g
Supervisor.”
E. The Divin
g
Supervisor shall advise the OOD/Duty Officer when divin
g
operations commence and when they
are concluded. At conclusion, the ship will be requested to pass the word on the 1MC, “Divin
g
operations are
complete. Carry out normal work routine.”
F. Divin
g
within 50 feet of an active sea suction (located on the same side of the keel) that is maintainin
g
a suc-
tion of 50
g
pm or more, is not authorized unless considered as an emer
g
ency repair and is authorized by the
Commandin
g
Officers of both the repair activity and tended vessel. When it is determined that the sea suction
is maintainin
g
a suction of less than 50
g
pm and is less than 50 feet, or maintainin
g
a suction of more than 50
g
pm and is less than 50 feet but on the opposite side of the keel, the Divin
g
Supervisor shall determine if the
sea suction is a safety hazard to the divers prior to conductin
g
any divin
g
operation. In all cases the Divin
g
Supervisor shall be aware of the tend of the diver’s umbilical to ensure that it will not cross over or become
entrapped by an active sea suction.
NOTIFY KEY PERSONNEL.
1. OOD _______________________________ (si
g
nature)
2. En
g
ineerin
g
Officer _______________________________ (si
g
nature)
3. CDO USS____________________________ (si
g
nature)
4. OOD USS____________________________
OOD USS____________________________
OOD USS____________________________
OOD USS____________________________
5. Squadron Operations _______________________________
6. Port Services Officer _______________________________
(Divin
g
Supervisor (Si
g
nature)
Figure 6-20a.
Ship Repair Safet
y
Checklist for Divin
g
(sheet 1 of 2).
6-44 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 2
SHIP REPAIR SAFETY CHECKLIST FOR DIVING
(Sheet 2 of 2)
TAG OUT EQUIPMENT
TAG OUT
SIGNATURE AND RATE
Rudder _________________________________________
Planes _________________________________________
Torpedo tube shutters _________________________________________
Trash disposal unit _________________________________________
Tank blows _________________________________________
Tank vents _________________________________________
Shaft
(
s
)
locked _________________________________________
Sea suctions _________________________________________
Sea dischar
g
es _________________________________________
U/W electrical e
q
uipment _________________________________________
Sonars _________________________________________
Other U/W e
q
uipment _________________________________________
USS _____________________________________
(
name of ship
)
CDO_____________________________________
(
si
g
nature of CDO
)
Figure 6-20b.
Ship Repair Safet
y
Checklist for Divin
g
(sheet 2 of 2).
CHAPTER 6 — Operational Planning 6-45
SURFACE-SUPPLIED DIVING OPERATIONS PREDIVE CHECKLIST
(Sheet 1 of 3)
CAUTION
This checklist is an overview intended for use with the detailed Operatin
g
Procedures
(
OPs
)
from the appropriate e
q
uipment O&M technical manual.
A. Basic Preparation:
__ 1. Verif
y
that a recompression chamber, Divin
g
Officer, and Divin
g
Medical Officer shall be
present on the divin
g
station for dives of more than 190 fsw.
__ 2. Verif
y
that proper si
g
nals indicatin
g
underwater operations bein
g
conducted are displa
y
ed
correctl
y
.
__ 3. Ensure that all personnel concerned, or in the vicinit
y
, are informed of divin
g
operations.
__ 4. Determine that all valves, switches, controls, and e
q
uipment components affectin
g
divin
g
operation are ta
gg
ed-out to prevent accidental shut-down or activation.
__ 5. Verif
y
that divin
g
s
y
stem and recompression chamber are currentl
y
certified or
g
ranted a Chief
of Naval Operations
(
CNO
)
waiver to operate.
B. Equipment Protection:
__ 1. Assemble all members of the divin
g
team and support personnel
(
winch operators, boat crew,
watchstanders, etc.
)
for a predive briefin
g
.
__ 2. Assemble and la
y
out all dive e
q
uipment, both primar
y
e
q
uipment and standb
y
spares for
diver
(
or standb
y
diver
)
, includin
g
all accessor
y
e
q
uipment and tools.
__ 3. Check all e
q
uipment for superficial wear, tears, dents, distortion, or other discrepancies.
__ 4. Check all masks, helmets, view ports, faceplates, seals, and visors for dama
g
e.
__ 5. Check all harnesses, laces, strain reliefs, and lan
y
ards for wear; renew as needed.
C. MK 21 MOD1:
__ Ensure that all Operatin
g
Procedures
(
OPs
)
have been completed in accordance with
UBA
MK 21 MOD 1 Technical Manual
, NAVSEA S6560-AG-OMP-010-UBA-21/1.
D. MK 20 MOD 0:
__ Ensure that all Operatin
g
Procedures
(
OPs
)
have been completed in accordance with
UBA
MK 20 MOD 0 Technical Manual
, NAVSEA SS600-AK-MMO-010/MK 20 MOD 0.
E. General Equipment:
__ 1. Check that all accessor
y
e
q
uipment – tools, li
g
hts, special s
y
stems, spares, etc., – are on site
and in workin
g
order. In testin
g
li
g
hts, tests should be conducted with li
g
hts submer
g
ed in
water and extin
g
uished before removal, to prevent overheatin
g
and failure.
__ 2. Erect divin
g
sta
g
e or attach divin
g
ladder. In the case of the sta
g
e, ensure that the screw pin
shackle connectin
g
the sta
g
e line is securel
y
fastened with the shackle pin seized with wire or
a safet
y
shackle is used to help prevent openin
g
.
F. Preparing the Diving System:
__ 1. Check that a primar
y
and suitable back-up air suppl
y
is available with a capacit
y
in terms of
purit
y
, volume, and suppl
y
pressure to completel
y
service all divers includin
g
decompression,
recompressions and accessor
y
e
q
uipment throu
g
hout all phases of the planned operation.
__ 2. Verif
y
that all divin
g
s
y
stem operatin
g
procedures have been conducted to properl
y
ali
g
n the
dive s
y
stem.
__ 3. Ensure that
q
ualified personnel are available to operate and stand watch on the dive s
y
stem.
Figure 6-21a.
Surface-Supplied Divin
g
Operations Predive Checklist (sheet 1 of 3).
6-46 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 2
SURFACE-SUPPLIED DIVING OPERATIONS PREDIVE CHECKLIST
(Sheet 2 of 3)
__ 4. Compressors:
___a. Determine that sufficient fuel, coolant, lubricants, and antifreeze are available to service
all components throu
g
hout the operation. All compressors should be full
y
fueled,
lubricated, and serviced
(
with all spilla
g
e cleaned up completel
y)
.
___b. Verif
y
that all divin
g
s
y
stem operatin
g
procedures have been conducted properl
y
to ali
g
n
the dive s
y
stem.
___c. Check maintenance and repair lo
g
s to ensure the suitabilit
y
of the compressor
(
both
primar
y
and back-up
)
to support the operation.
___d. Verif
y
that all compressor controls are properl
y
marked and an
y
remote valvin
g
is ta
gg
ed
with “Divers Air Suppl
y
- Do Not Touch
” si
g
ns.
___e. Ensure that compressor is secure in divin
g
craft and shall not be sub
j
ect to operatin
g
an
g
les, caused b
y
roll or pitch, that will exceed 15 de
g
rees from the horizontal.
___f. Verif
y
that oil in the compressor is an approved t
y
pe. Check that the compressor oil does
not overflow Fill mark; contamination of air suppl
y
could result from fumes or oil mist.
___
g
. Check that compressor exhaust is vented awa
y
from work areas and, specificall
y
, does
not foul the compressor intake.
___h. Check that compressor intake is obtainin
g
a free and pure suction without contamination.
Use pipe to lead intake to a clear suction if necessar
y
.
___i. Check all filters, cleaners and oil separators for cleanliness IAW PMS.
___
j
. Bleed off all condensed moisture from filters and from the bottom of volume tanks. Check
all manifold drain plu
g
s, and that all petcocks are closed.
___k. Check that all belt-
g
uards are properl
y
in place on drive units.
___l. Check all pressure-release valves, check valves and automatic unloaders.
___m. Verif
y
that all suppl
y
hoses runnin
g
to and from compressor have proper leads, do not
pass near hi
g
h-heat areas such as steam lines, are free of kinks and bends, and are not
exposed on deck in such a wa
y
that the
y
could be rolled over, dama
g
ed, or severed b
y
machiner
y
or other means.
___n. Verif
y
that all pressure suppl
y
hoses have safet
y
lines and strain reliefs properl
y
attached.
H. Activate the Air Supply in accordance with approved OPs.
__ 1. Compressors:
___a. Ensure that all warm-up procedures are completel
y
followed.
___b. Check all petcocks, filler valves, filler caps, overflow points, bleed valves, and drain plu
g
s
for leaka
g
e or malfunction of an
y
kind.
___c. Verif
y
that there is a properl
y
functionin
g
pressure
g
au
g
e on the air receiver and that the
compressor is meetin
g
its deliver
y
re
q
uirements.
__ 2. C
y
linders:
___a. Gau
g
e all c
y
linders for proper pressure.
___b. Verif
y
availabilit
y
and suitabilit
y
of reserve c
y
linders.
___c. Check all manifolds and valves for operation.
___d. Activate and check deliver
y
.
__ 3. For all suppl
y
s
y
stems, double check “Do Not Touch
” ta
g
s
(
ta
g
s outs
)
.
Figure 6-21b.
Surface-Supplied Divin
g
Operations Predive Checklist (sheet 2 of 3).
CHAPTER 6 — Operational Planning 6-47
SURFACE-SUPPLIED DIVING OPERATIONS PREDIVE CHECKLIST
(Sheet 3 of 3)
I. Diving Hoses:
__ 1. Ensure all hoses have a clear lead and are protected from excessive heatin
g
and dama
g
e.
__ 2. Check hose in accordance with PMS.
__ 3. Ensure that the hose
(
or an
y
len
g
th
)
has not been used in a burst test pro
g
ram. No hose
len
g
th involved in such a pro
g
ram shall be part of an operational divin
g
hose.
__ 4. Check that hoses are free of moisture, packin
g
material, or chalk.
__ 5. Soap test hose connections after connection to air suppl
y
and pressurization.
__ 6. Ensure umbilical boots are in
g
ood condition.
J. Test Equipment with Activated Air Supply in accordance with approved OPs.
__ 1. Hook up all air hoses to helmets, masks and chamber; make connections between back-up
suppl
y
and primar
y
suppl
y
manifold.
__ 2. Verif
y
flow to helmets and masks.
__ 3. Check all exhaust and non-return valves.
__ 4. Hook up and test all communications.
__ 5. Check air flow from both primar
y
and back-up supplies to chamber.
K. Recompression Chamber Checkout (Predive only):
__ 1. Check that chamber is completel
y
free and clear of all combustible materials.
__ 2. Check primar
y
and back-up air suppl
y
to chamber and all pressure
g
au
g
es.
__ 3. Check that chamber is free of all odors or other “contaminants.”
__ 4. Hook up and test all communications.
__ 5. Check air flow from both primar
y
and back-up supplies to chamber.
Final Preparations:
__ 1. Verif
y
that all necessar
y
records, lo
g
s, and timesheets are on the divin
g
station.
__ 2. Check that appropriate decompression tables are readil
y
at hand.
__ 3. Place the dressin
g
bench in position, reasonabl
y
close to the divin
g
ladder or sta
g
e, to
minimize diver travel.
Figure 6-21c.
Surface-Supplied Divin
g
Operations Predive Checklist (sheet 3 of 3).
6-48 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 2
Unexpected developments or emergency situations may be accompanied by
confusion. The source and availability of any needed assistance and the method
for obtaining it as quickly as possible, shall be determined in advance. The loca-
tion of the nearest recompression chamber shall be identified and the chamber
operators notified before the operation begins. The sources of emergency transpor-
tation, military or civilian, shall be established and alerted and the nearest Diving
Medical Officer should be located and notified. Arrangements must be made to
ensure a 24-hour availability for emergency assistance.
When a recompression chamber is required by Figure 6-14, the chamber shall be
currently certified and within 30 minutes’ travel time from the dive site. If a
recompression chamber is required in an emergency, a non-certified chamber may
be used if the Diving Supervisor is of the opinion that it is safe to operate.
Figure 6-22 is a suggested format for the Emergency Assistance Checklist that
shall be completed and posted at the diving station to provide necessary informa-
tion so that any member of the team could take prompt action.
6-12.5.1
Notification of Ship's Personnel.
In the event of a diving casualty or mishap on
dive station, calm must be maintained. Maintain silence on the side and take
orders from the Diving Officer, Master Diver, and/or Diving Supervisor.
6-12.5.2
Fouling and Entrapment.
Fouling and entrapment are more common with
surface-supplied gear than scuba because of the ease with which the umbilicals
can become entangled. Divers shall be particularly careful and watch their own
umbilicals and those of their partners as well.
The surface-supplied diver may become fouled more easily, but will usually have
an ample air supply while working to get free. The scuba diver may have no other
recourse but to remove the gear and make a free ascent. If trapped, the scuba diver
must face the possibility of running out of air before being able to work free.
The first and most important action that a trapped diver can take is to stop and
think. The diver shall remain calm, analyze the situation, and carefully try to work
free. Panic and overexertion are the greatest dangers to the trapped diver. If the
situation cannot be resolved readily, help should be obtained. A new umbilical can
be provided to the surface-supplied diver; the scuba diver can be given a new
apparatus or may be furnished air by the dive partner.
Once the diver has been freed and returns to the surface, the diver shall be exam-
ined and treated, bearing in mind the following considerations:
The diver will probably be overtired and emotionally exhausted.
The diver may be suffering from or approaching hypothermia.
The diver may have a physical injury.
CHAPTER 6 — Operational Planning 6-49
EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CHECKLIST
Figure 6-22.
Emergency Assistance Checklist.
RECOMPRESSION CHAMBER
____________________________________
Location
____________________________________
Name/Phone Number
____________________________________
Response Time
AIR TRANSPORTATION
____________________________________
Location
____________________________________
Name/Phone Number
____________________________________
Response Time
SEA TRANSPORTATION
____________________________________
Location
____________________________________
Name/Phone Number
____________________________________
Response Time
HOSPITAL
____________________________________
Location
____________________________________
Name/Phone Number
____________________________________
Response Time
DIVING MEDICAL OFFICER
____________________________________
Location
____________________________________
Name/Phone Number
____________________________________
Response Time
GAS SUPPLIES
____________________________________
Location
____________________________________
Name/Phone Number
____________________________________
Response Time
COMMUNICATIONS
____________________________________
Location
____________________________________
Name/Phone Number
____________________________________
Response Time
DIVING UNITS
____________________________________
Location
____________________________________
Name/Phone Number
____________________________________
Response Time
COMMAND
____________________________________
Location
____________________________________
Name/Phone Number
____________________________________
Response Time
EMERGENCY CONSULTATION
Duty Phone Numbers 24 Hours a Day
Navy Experimental Dive Unit (NEDU)
Commercial (850) 234-4351
(850) 230-3100
DSN 436-4351
Navy Diving Salvage and Training Center
(NDSTC)
Commercial (850) 234-4651
DSN 436-4651
6-50 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 2
A scuba diver may be suffering from asphyxia. If a free ascent has been made,
gas embolism may have developed.
Significant decompression time may have been missed.
6-12.5.3
Equipment Failure.
With well-maintained equipment that is thoroughly inspected
and tested before each dive, operational failure is rarely a problem. When a failure
does occur, the correct procedures will depend upon the type of equipment and
dive. As with most emergencies, the training and experience of the diver and the
diving team will be the most important factor in resolving the situation safely.
6-12.5.3.1
Loss of Gas Supply.
Usually, when a diver loses breathing gas it should be
obvious almost immediately. Some diving apparatus configurations may have an
emergency gas supply (EGS). When breathing gas is interrupted, the dive shall be
aborted and the diver surfaced as soon as possible. Surfacing divers may be
suffering from hypoxia, hypercapnia, missed decompression, or a combination of
the three, and should be treated accordingly.
6-12.5.3.2
Loss of Communications.
If audio communications are lost with surface-
supplied gear, the system may have failed or the diver could be in trouble. If
communications are lost:
1.
Use line-pull signals at once. Depth, current, bottom or work site conditions
may interfere.
2.
Check the rising bubbles of air. A cessation or marked decrease of bubbles
could be a sign of trouble.
3.
Listen for sounds from the diving helmet. If no sound is heard, the circuit is
probably out of order. If the flow of bubbles seems normal, the diver may be
all right.
4.
If sounds are heard and the diver does not respond to signals, assume the diver
is in trouble.
5.
Have divers already on the bottom investigate, or send down the standby diver
to do so.
6-12.5.4
Lost Diver.
In planning for an operation using scuba, lost diver procedures shall
be included in the dive plan and dive brief. Losing contact with a scuba diver can
be the first sign of a serious problem. If contact between divers is lost, each diver
shall surface. If the diver is not located quickly, or not found at the surface
following correct lost communications procedure, the Diving Supervisor shall
initiate search procedures immediately. At the same time, medical personnel
should be notified and the recompression chamber team alerted.
A lost diver is often disoriented and confused and may have left the operating area.
Nitrogen narcosis or other complications involving the breathing mixture, which
can result in confusion, dizziness, anxiety, or panic, are common in recovered lost
CHAPTER 6 — Operational Planning 6-51
divers. The diver may harm the rescuers unknowingly. When the diver is located,
the rescuer should approach with caution to prevent being harmed and briefly
analyze the stricken divers condition.
If the diver is found unconscious, attempts should be made to resupply breathing
gas and restore consciousness. If this cannot be accomplished, the diver shall be
brought to the surface immediately. Gas Embolism may occur during ascent and
significant decompression may be missed and immediate recompression may be
required. If it is possible to provide the diver with an air supply such as a single-
hose demand scuba, the rescuer should do so during the ascent.
6-12.5.5
Debriefing the Diving Team.
After the day’s diving has been completed (or after
a shift has finished work if the operation is being carried on around the clock), all
members of the diving team should be brought together for a short debriefing of
the day’s activities. This offers all personnel a chance to provide feedback to the
Diving Supervisor and other members of the team. This group interaction can help
clarify any confusion that may have arisen because of faulty communications, lack
of dive site information, or misunderstandings from the initial briefing.
6-13
AIR DIVING EQUIPMENT REFERENCE DATA
There are several diving methods which are characterized by the diving equipment
used. The following descriptions outline capabilities and logistical requirements
for various air diving systems.
6-52 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 2
Scuba General Characteristics
Principle of Operation:
Self contained, open-circuit demand system
Minimum Equipment:
1. Open-circuit scuba with J-valve or submersible
pressure gauge
2. Life preserver/buoyancy compensator
3. Weight belt (if required)
4. Dive knife
5. Face mask
6. Swim fins
7. Submersible wrist watch
8. Depth gauge
Principal Applications:
1. Shallow water search
2. Inspection
3. Light repair and recovery
Advantages:
1. Rapid deployment
2. Portability
3. Minimum support requirements
4. Excellent horizontal and vertical mobility
5. Minimum bottom disturbances
Disadvantages:
1. Limited endurance (depth and duration)
2. Limited physical protection
3. Influenced by current
4. Lack of voice communication (unless equipped
with a through-water communications system
or full face mask)
Restrictions:
Work limits:
1. Normal 130 fsw
2. Maximum 190 fsw with Commanding Officer’s
permission
3. 100 fsw with single scuba bottle, twin bottles
required below 100 fsw
4. Standby diver with twin bottles below 60 fsw
5. Within no-decompression limits
6. Current - 1 knot maximum
7. Diving team - minimum 4 persons
Operational Considerations:
1. Standby diver required
2. Small craft mandatory for diver recovery during
open-ocean diving.
3. Moderate to good visibility preferred
4. Ability to free ascend to surface required (see
paragraph 7-8.2)
Figure 6-23.
Scuba General Characteristics.
CHAPTER 6 — Operational Planning 6-53
MK 20 MOD 0 General
Characteristics
Principle of Operation:
Surface-supplied, open-circuit lightweight system
Minimum Equipment:
1. MK 20 MOD 0 mask
2. Harness
3. Weight belt (as required)
4. Dive knife
5. Swim fins or boots
6. Surface umbilical
Principal Applications:
Diving in mud tanks and enclosed spaces
Advantages:
1. Unlimited by air supply
2. Good horizo ntal mobility
3. Voice and/or line-pull signal capabilities
Disadvantages:
1. Limited physical protection
Restrictions:
1. Work limits: 60 fsw
2. Current - Above 1.5 knots requires extra
weights
3. Enclosed space diving requires an Emergency
Gas Supply (EGS) with 50- to 150-foot whip
and second-stage regulator.
Operational Considerations:
1. Adequate air supply system required
2. Standby diver required
Figure 6-24.
MK 20 MOD 0 General Characteristics.
MK 20 MOD 0 Helmet.
6-54 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 2
MK 21 MOD 1 General
Characteristics
Principle of Operation:
Surface-supplied, open-circuit system
Minimum Equipment:
1. MK 21 MOD 1 Helmet
2. Harness
3. Weight belt (if required)
4. Dive knife
5. Swim fins or boots
6. Surface umbilical
7. EGS bottle deeper than 60 fsw
Principal Applications:
1. Search
2. Salvage
3. Inspection
4. Underwater Ships Husbandry and enclosed
space diving
Advantages:
1. Unlimited by air supply
2. Head protection
3. Good horizontal mobility
4. Voice and/or line pull signal capabilities
5. Fast deployment
Disadvantages:
1. Limited mobility
Restrictions:
1. Work limits: 190 fsw
2. Emergency air supply (EGS) required deeper
than 60 fsw or diving inside a wreck or
enclosed space
3. Current - Above 1.5 knots requires extra
weights
4. Enclosed space diving requires an Emergency
Gas Supply (EGS) with 50- to 150-foot whip
and second stage regulator.
Operational Considerations:
1. Adequate air supply system required
2. Standby diver required
Figure 6-25.
MK 21 MOD 1 General Characteristics.
MK 21 MOD 1 Helmet.