CHAPTER 17 — Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Diving 17-1
CHAPTER 17
&ORVHG&LUFXLW0L[HG*DV8%$'LYLQJ
17-1
INTRODUCTION
Closed-circuit mixed-gas underwater breathing apparatus (UBA) is primarily
employed by Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) and Special Warfare
(SPECWAR) forces. This equipment combines the mobility of a free-swimming
diver with the depth advantages of mixed gas. UBAs in this category permit
completely autonomous diver operations without an umbilical. The term closed-
circuit refers to the recirculation of 100 percent of the mixed-gas breathing
medium. This results in bubble-free operation, except during ascent or inadvertent
gas release. This capability makes closed-circuit UBAs well-suited for special
warfare operations and for operations requiring a low acoustic signature. The U.S.
Navy’s use of the mixed-gas closed-circuit UBA was developed to satisfy the
operational requirements of SPECWAR combat swimmers and EOD divers.
Improvements in gas usage, dive duration, and depth capabilities provided by the
UBA greatly increase the effectiveness of these divers. Dives to 150 feet of
seawater (fsw) can be made when N
2
O
2
(air) is used as a diluent and to 300 fsw
when HeO
2
(84/16–82/18) is used as a diluent. Current certification limits the MK
16 UBA diving to 200 fsw.
17-1.1
Purpose.
This chapter provides general guidelines
for MK 16 UBA diving, operations and procedures
(Figures 17-1 and 17-2). For detailed operation
and maintenance instructions, see technical man-
ual SS600-AH-MMA-010 (MK 16).
17-1.2
Scope.
This chapter covers MK 16 UBA princi-
ples of operations, operational planning, dive pro-
cedures, and medical aspects of mixed-gas closed-
circuit diving. Refer to Chapter 16 for procedures
for mixing divers’ breathing gas.
17-2
PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION
The U.S. Navy closed-circuit mixed-gas UBA is a
constant partial-pressure-of-oxygen rebreather. To
conserve the gas supply and extend underwater
duration, the efficiency of gas use is improved by:
Removing carbon dioxide produced by meta-
bolic action of the body.
Adding pure oxygen to the breathing gas to
replace the oxygen consumed.
Recirculating the breathing gas for reuse.
Figure 17-1.
MK 16
MOD 0 Closed-Circuit
Mixed-Gas UBA.
17-2 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 4
17-2.1
Recirculation and Carbon Dioxide Removal.
The divers breathing medium is
recirculated in a closed-circuit UBA to remove carbon dioxide and permit reuse of
the inert diluent and unused oxygen in the mixture. The basic recirculation system
consists of a closed loop that incorporates inhalation and exhalation hoses and
associated check valves, a mouthpiece or full face mask (FFM), a carbon dioxide
removal unit, and a diaphram assembly.
17-2.1.1
Recirculating Gas.
Recirculating gas is normally moved through the circuit by
the natural inhalation-exhalation action of the divers lungs. Because the lungs can
produce only small pressure differences, the entire circuit must be designed for
minimum flow restriction.
17-2.1.2
Full Face Mask.
The FFM uses an integral oral-nasal mask or T-bit to reduce dead
space and the possibility of rebreathing carbon dioxide-rich gas. Similarly, check
valves used to ensure one-way flow of gas through the circuit must be close to the
diver’s mouth and nose to minimize dead space. All breathing hoses in the system
Figure 17-2.
MK 16 MOD 0 UBA Functional Block Diagram.
CHAPTER 17 — Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Diving 17-3
must be of relatively large diameter (minimum one-inch ID) to minimize
breathing resistance.
17-2.1.3
Carbon Dioxide Scrubber.
Carbon dioxide is removed from the breathing circuit
in a watertight canister filled with a NAVSEA-approved carbon dioxide-absorbent
material located in the backpack of the UBA. The bed of carbon dioxide-absorbent
material chemically combines with the divers exhaled carbon dioxide, while
allowing the unused oxygen and diluent to pass through it. Inadvertent wetting of
the absorbent material produces a caustic solution. Water produced by the reaction
between carbon dioxide and the carbon dioxide absorbent, or by the diver himself,
is collected by moisture absorbent pads above and below the canister. A major
limiting factor for the MK 16 is the CO
2
absorbent capability. Absorbent duration
is directly related to the environmental operating temperature and depth. Absor-
bent duration decreases as temperature decreases and as depth increases.
The canister design must provide low flow resistance while ensuring maximum
contact between the gas and the absorbent. Flow resistance is minimized in the
MK 16 UBA by employing a radially-designed canister to reduce gas flow
distance. If the canister is improperly filled, channels may be formed through the
absorbent granules permitting the gas to bypass the absorbent and allowing carbon
dioxide to build up in the UBA.
17-2.1.4
Diaphram Assembly.
A diaphram assembly or counter lung is used in all closed-
circuit UBAs to permit free breathing in the circuit. The need for such devices can
be readily demonstrated by attempting to exhale and inhale into an empty bottle.
The bottle, similar to the recirculation system without a bag, is unyielding and
presents extreme back pressure. In order to compensate, flexible diaphragms or a
breathing bag must be placed in the UBA circuit with a maximum displacement
equal to the combined volume of both lungs.
Constant buoyancy is inherent in the system because the gas reservoir acts counter
to normal lung action. In open-circuit scuba, diver buoyancy decreases during
exhalation due to a decrease in lung volume. In closed-circuit scuba, expansion of
the breathing bag keeps buoyancy constant. On inhalation, the process is reversed.
This cycle is shown in Figure 17-3.
The flexible gas reservoir must be located as close to the divers chest as possible
to minimize hydrostatic pressure differences between the lungs and the reservoir
as the diver changes attitude in the water.
The MK 16 UBA uses a single reservoir built into a streamlined backpack
assembly. Using a single reservoir located within the backpack affords minimum
encumbrance to the diver and maximum protection for the reservoir.
17-2.1.5
Recirculation System.
Optimal performance of the recirculation system depends
on proper maintenance of equipment, proper filling with fresh absorbent, and
accurate metering of oxygen input. To ensure efficient carbon dioxide removal
throughout the dive, personnel must carefully limit dive time to the specified
17-4 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 4
canister duration. Any factor that reduces the efficiency of carbon dioxide removal
increases the risk of carbon dioxide poisoning.
CAUTION The MK 16 UBA provides no visual warnin
g
of excess CO
2
problems.
The diver should be aware of CO
2
toxicity symptoms.
17-2.2
Gas Addition, Exhaust, and Monitoring.
In addition to the danger of carbon
dioxide toxicity, the closed-circuit UBA diver encounters the potential hazards of
hypoxia and central nervous system (CNS) oxygen toxicity (see Volume 5). It is
essential that these hazards be avoided. The UBA must control the partial pressure
of oxygen (ppO
2
) in the breathing medium within narrow limits for safe operation
and be monitored frequently by the diver.
Hypoxia can occur when there is insufficient oxygen in the recirculation circuit to
meet metabolic requirements. If oxygen is not added to the breathing circuit, the
oxygen in the loop will be gradually consumed over a period of 2-5 minutes, at
which point the oxygen in the mixture is incapable of sustaining life.
CNS oxygen toxicity can occur whenever the oxygen partial pressure in the
diver’s breathing medium exceeds specified concentration and exposure time
limits. Consequently, the UBA must function to limit the ppO
2
level to the appro-
priate value.
The closed-circuit mixed-gas UBA uses a direct control method of maintaining
oxygen concentration in the system, rather than the indirect method of a preset
mass flow, common to semi-closed apparatus.
Figure 17-3.
UBA Breathing Bag Acts to Maintain the Diver’s Constant Buoyancy by
Responding Counter to Lung Displacement.
CHAPTER 17 — Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Diving 17-5
17-2.3
Advantages of Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA.
While functionally simpler in
principle, the closed-circuit mixed-gas UBA tends to be more complex than the
semi-closed UBA because of the oxygen analysis and control circuits required.
Offsetting this complexity, however, are several inherent advantages:
Aside from mixed or diluent gas addition during descent, the only gas required
at depth is oxygen to make up for metabolic consumption.
The partial pressure of oxygen in the system is automatically controlled
throughout the dive to a preset value. No adjustment is required during a dive
for variations in depth and work rate.
No inert gas leaves the system except by accident or during ascent, making the
closed-circuit UBA relatively bubble-free and well-suited for SPECWAR and
EOD operations requiring low acoustic signature.
17-3
USN CLOSED-CIRCUIT MIXED-GAS UBA
The MK 16 UBA is fabricated of Acrylonitile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) or poly-
carbonate, nylon, brass, neoprene and other nonmagnetic materials. By necessity,
however, certain components such as oxygen and diluent bottles (high-pressure
components) are fabricated of Inconel 718 which may have a magnetic signature
imparted to them. The components and materials used in the MK 16 UBA have
been specifically selected and assembled to exhibit a minimum magnetic
signature.
17-3.1
Diving Safety.
Closed-circuit mixed-gas UBAs are mechanically more complex
than open-circuit scuba. Diving safety is achieved only when:
The diver has been thoroughly trained and qualified in the proper use of the
UBA.
All equipment has been prepared for the specific diving conditions expected.
The dive is conducted within specified depth and duration limits.
The diver strictly adheres to and immediately implements all operational and
emergency procedures.
17-3.2
MK 16 UBA Basic Systems.
The MK 16 UBA is broken down into four basic
systems (housing, recirculation, pneumatics, and electronics) and their subassem-
blies as described in the following paragraphs. These systems provide a contolled
ppO
2
breathing gas to the diver.
17-3.3
Housing System.
Major components of the MK 16 UBA are housed in a rein-
forced ABS or fiberglass, molded case. The equipment case is a contoured
backpack assembly designed for minimum interference while swimming, and is
equipped with an integral harness assembly. A streamlined, readily-detachable
outer cover minimizes the danger of underwater entanglement. External to the
17-6 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 4
housing are components such as the mouthpiece, pressure indicators, hoses, and
primary and secondary displays.
17-3.4
Recirculation System.
The recirculation system consists of a closed loop incor-
porating inhalation and exhalation hoses, a mouthpiece or FFM, a carbon dioxide-
absorbent canister, and a flexible breathing diaphragm. The diver’s breathing
gases are recirculated to remove carbon dioxide and permit reuse of the inert
component of the diluent and residual oxygen in the breathing mixture. Inhalation
and exhalation check valves in the mouthpiece assembly (or manifold of the FFM)
ensure the unidirectional flow of gas through the system.
17-3.4.1
Closed-Circuit Subassembly.
The closed-circuit subassembly has a removable
cover, a center section attached to the fiberglass equipment case, a flexible rubber
breathing diaphragm, and a CO
2
scrubber assembly. Moisture-absorbent pads
inside the scrubber assembly absorb any condensation formed on the cover walls.
The space between the scrubber canister and the cover serves as a gas plenum,
insulating the canister from the ambient cold water.
17-3.4.2
Scrubber Functions.
The scrubber has two functions:
Carbon Dioxide Removal
. Before the divers exhaled breath reaches the
breathing diaphragm, it passes through the scrubber canister. The scrubber
canister is filled with an approved, high efficiency, granular carbon dioxide-
absorbent material. Two filter discs in the scrubber canister serve as gas dis-
tributors to minimize effects of any channeling in the absorbent. After passing
through the filters, the exhaled gas passes through the carbon dioxide-absor-
bent bed, chemically combining with the carbon dioxide created by metabolic
use of the diver’s breathing oxygen but allowing the diluent and unused oxy-
gen to pass through it.
Water Removal
. Moisture produced by diver exhalation and the reaction
between carbon dioxide and carbon dioxide-absorbent is assimilated by mois-
ture-absorbent pads located outside the canister.
17-3.5
Pneumatics System.
The pneumatics system comprises:
High-pressure bottles for storing oxygen and diluent gases.
Indicators to permit monitoring of the remaining gas supply.
Regulators, fittings, tubing, filters and valves regulate and deliver oxygen and
diluent gases to the recirculation system.
17-3.6
Electronics System.
The electronics system maintains a constant partial pressure
of oxygen in the closed-circuit UBA by processing and conditioning signal
outputs from the oxygen sensors located in the breathing loop, stimulating the
oxygen-addition valve, and controlling the output of the primary display.
CHAPTER 17 — Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Diving 17-7
17-3.6.1
Oxygen Sensing.
The partial pressure of oxygen within the recirculation system
is monitored by three sensors. Each sensor’s output is evaluated by the primary
electronics package through a voting logic circuit negating the output from a
faulty sensor. Sensor averages are shown by the primary display. Backup reading
of each individual sensor can be read on the secondary display which requires no
outside power source.
17-3.6.2
Oxygen Control.
Oxygen concentration in the recirculation system is measured
by sensors. The sensors send signals to the primary electronics assembly and the
secondary display. The primary electronics assembly compares these sensor
signals with the setpoint value, providing output to the primary display and
controlling the oxygen-addition valve. An actual ppO
2
value less than the setpoint
automatically actuates the oxygen-addition valve to admit oxygen to the breathing
loop.
Oxygen control involves several factors:
System Redundancy
. The primary electronics assembly in the MK 16 UBA
treats each of the sensor signals as a vote. The sensor vote is either above or
below the predetermined setpoint. If a simple majority of the sensors is below
the predetermined setpoint, a drive signal is sent to the oxygen-addition valve;
when a majority of the sensors is above the predetermined setpoint, the signal
is terminated. In effect, the electronics circuit ignores the highest and lowest
sensor signals and controls the oxygen-addition valve with the middle sensor.
Similarly, the electronics circuit displays a high-oxygen alarm (flashing green)
if a majority of the sensors’ signals indicates a high oxygen level and displays
a low-oxygen alarm (flashing red) if a majority of the sensors’ signals indi-
cates a low oxygen level. If only one sensor indicates a high oxygen level
and/or only one sensor indicates a low oxygen level, the electronics circuit
output alternates between the two alarm states (alternating red/green).
Setpoint Calibration
. The normal operational ppO
2
setpoint for the MK 16
UBA is 0.75 ata. Appropriate calibration procedures are used to preset the spe-
cific ppO
2
setting.
Oxygen Addition
. In response to the sensor outputs, the oxygen-addition valve
admits oxygen to the breathing loop in the recirculation system. The control
circuits continuously monitor the average ppO
2
level. If the oxygen partial
pressure in the recirculation system is lower than the setpoint level, the oxy-
gen-addition valve is energized to admit oxygen. When the ppO
2
reaches the
required level, the automatic control system maintains the oxygen-addition
valve in the SHUT position. Should the oxygen-addition valve fail in an
OPEN position, the resulting free flow of oxygen in the MK 16 is restricted by
the tubing diameter and the orifice size of the piezoelectric oxygen-addition
valve.
17-3.6.3
Displays.
The MK 16 UBA has two displays that provide continuous information
to the diver about ppO
2
, battery condition, and oxygen sensor malfunction.
17-8 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 4
17-3.6.3.1
Primary Display.
The primary display consists of two light-emitting diodes
(LEDs) that are contained within the primary display housing. This display is
normally mounted on the face mask, within the peripheral vision of the diver
(Figure 17-4). The two LEDs (one red and one green) powered by the primary
electronics assembly battery indicate the general overall condition of various elec-
tronic components and the ppO
2
in the breathing loop as follows:
Steady green
: Normal oxygen range, 0.60 to 0.90 ata ppO
2
(using a set point
of 0.75 ata)
Steady red or simultaneously illuminated steady red and green
: Primary
electronics failure
Flashing green
: High oxygen content, greater than 0.90 ata ppO
2
Flashing red
: Low oxygen content, less than 0.60 ata ppO
2
Alternating red/green
: Normal transition period (ppO
2
is transitioning from
normal to low, from low to normal, from normal to high, or from high to nor-
mal), one sensor out of limits, low primary battery power (displayed on
secondary display) or primary electronics failure.
No display (display blanked)
: Electronics assembly or primary battery
failure.
17-3.6.3.2
Secondary Display.
The MK 16 secondary display is designed to provide quanti-
tative information to the diver on the condition of the breathing medium, the
primary battery voltage and the condition of the secondary batteries. It also serves
as a backup for the primary display in the event of a failure or malfunction to the
primary electronics assembly, the primary display, or the primary battery. The
secondary display functions concurrently with, but independently of, the primary
display and displays the O
2
sensor readings and primary battery information in
digital form. The secondary display is powered by four 1.5-volt batteries for illu-
mination of the LED display only. It does not rely on the primary electronics
subassembly, but receives signals directly from the oxygen sensors and the
primary battery. It will continue to function in the event of a primary electronics
assembly failure. See Figure 17-4.
17-4
OPERATIONAL PLANNING
Because the MK 16 UBA maintains a constant partial pressure of oxygen and only
adds oxygen or diluent gas as needed, dives of long duration are possible. Mission
capabilities, dive procedures, and decompression procedures are radically
different from any other methods. This requires a high level of diver training and
awareness and necessitates careful dive planning. Chapter 6 provides general
guidelines for operational planning. The information provided in this section is
supplemental to the MK 16 UBA O&M manual and provides specific guidelines
for MK 16 UBA dive planning. In addition to any other requirements, at least half
of all dive training should be at night or in conditions of restricted visibility. Units
CHAPTER 17 — Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Diving 17-9
requiring a deep operational capability should allow frequent opportunity for
training, ensuring diver familiarity with equipment and procedures. Workup
dives are strongly recommended prior to diving at depths greater than 130
fsw. MK 16 diver qualifications may be obtained only by completion of the MK
16 Basic Course (A-431-0075) or the Naval Special Warfare Center MK 16 quali-
fications course. MK 16 qualifications remain in effect as long as diver
qualifications are maintained in accordance with Military Personnel Manual
article 1410380. However, a diver who has not made a MK 16 dive in the previous
six months must refamiliarize himself with MK 16 EPs and OPs and must
complete a MK 16 training dive prior to making a MK 16 operational dive. Prior
to conducting MK 16 decompression diving, a diver who has not conducted a
MK 16 decompression dive within the previous six months must complete open
water decompression training dives. Refer to Table 17-1 for the personnel require-
ments for MK 16 diving operations.
17-4.1
Operating Limitations.
Using combat swimmer multilevel dive (CSMD) proce-
dures provides SPECWAR divers with the option of conducting multiple-depth
diving with the MK 16 UBA if a maximum depth of 70 fsw (NEDU Report 13-83)
is not exceeded at any time during the dive. Refer to Table 17-2 for equipment
depth limitations. Diving Supervisors must also consider the limiting factors
presented in the following paragraphs when planning closed-circuit UBA
operations.
17-4.1.1
Oxygen Flask Endurance.
In calculating the endurance of the MK 16, only the
oxygen flask is considered. The endurance of the oxygen flask is dependent upon
the following:
Flask floodable volume
Figure 17-4.
Underwater Breathing Apparatus MK 16 MOD 0.
17-10 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 4
Initial predive pressure
Required reserve pressure
Table 17-1. Personnel Requirements Chart for Mixed-Gas Diving.
Mixed-Gas UBA Dive Team
Optimum Minimum
Designation One Diver Two Divers One Diver Two Divers
Divin
g
Officer (Notes 3, 4) (Notes 3, 4) (Notes 3, 4) (Notes 3, 4)
Divin
g
Medical Officer (Note 5) (Note 5) (Note 5) (Note 5)
Divin
g
Supervisor 1 1 1 (Note 2) 1 (Note 2)
Diver 1 2 1 2
Standby Diver 1 (Note 7) 1 (Note 7) 1 (Note 7) 1 (Note 7)
Diver Tender 1 (Note 1) 2 (Note 1) 1 (Note 1) 1 (Note 1)
Standby Diver Tender 1 1 (Note 8) (Note 8)
Timekeeper/Recorder 1 1
EBS Operator (Note 6) (Note 6) (Note 6) (Note 6)
Total Personnel Required 6 8 4 5
Notes
:
1. One tender per diver when divers are surface tended. If usin
g
a buddy line, one tender is required for each buddy pair.
2. May act as timekeeper/recorder.
3. EOD Divin
g
Officer is required on site for all EOD operations that involve render safe procedure; for SPECWAR, Divin
g
Officer is not required on station.
On station
is defined as at the dive location.
4. Divin
g
Officer may perform any other function simultaneously (i.e., Divin
g
Officer/Diver).
5. A Divin
g
Medical Officer is required on station for all dives exceedin
g
the normal workin
g
limit.
6. EBS Operator is for MK 16 in-water decompression dives.
7. At the Divin
g
Supervisor’s discretion, the standby diver shall be fully dressed with the exception of scuba or MK 16, mask,
and fins. These items shall be ready to don.
8. If the Standby Diver is deployed, the Divin
g
Supervisor shall tend the Standby Diver.
Table 17-2. Equipment Operational Characteristics.
Diving
Equipment
Normal Working Limit (fsw)
(Notes 1 and 2)
Maximum Working Limit
(fsw) (Note 1)
Chamber
Requirement
MK 16 UBA 150
200
150 (air diluent)
200 (HeO
2
diluent)
Note 3
Note 3
Notes
:
1. Depth limits are based on considerations of workin
g
time, decompression obli
g
ation, oxy
g
en tolerance and nitro
g
en
narcosis. The expected duration of the
g
as supply, the expected duration of the carbon dioxide absorbent, the adequacy of
thermal protection, or other factors may also limit both the depth and the duration of the dive.
2. A Divin
g
Medical officer is required on station for all dives exceedin
g
the normal workin
g
limit.
3. Dives deeper than the normal workin
g
limits require a recompression chamber on station.
On station
is defined as at the
dive location.
CHAPTER 17 — Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Diving 17-11
Oxygen consumption by the diver
Effect of cold water immersion on flask pressure
17-4.1.1.1
Flask Floodable Volume.
The oxygen flask floodable volume (fv) is 0.1 cubic
foot (2.9 liters).
17-4.1.1.2
Initial Predive Pressure.
The initial pressure is the pressure of the oxygen flask at
ambient temperature when it has cooled following charging. A reserve pressure of
500 psig is required to drive the reducer. Calculation of initial pressure must also
account for gas loss resulting from UBA predive calibration. Oxygen consumption
by the diver is computed as 0.049 scfm (1.4 lpm). This is a conservative value for
a diver swimming at 0.85 knot (Chapter 3, Figure 3-6). Refer to Table 17-3 for
information on the average breathing gas consumption rates and CO
2
absorbent
usage.
17-4.1.1.3
Effect of Cold Water Immersion on Flask Pressure.
Immersion in cold water will
reduce the flask pressure and actual cubic feet (acf) of gas available for the diver,
in accordance with Charles’/Gay-Lussac’s gas law. Based upon direct measure-
ment, available data, or experience, the coldest temperature expected during the
dive is used.
17-4.1.1.4
Calculating Gas Endurance.
Combining these factors produces the formula for
MK 16 gas endurance:
MK 16 gas endurance =
Where:
F
V
= Floodable volume of flask in cubic feet
P
I
= Initial Pressure in psia
P
R
= Reserve Pressure in psia
Table 17-3. Average Breathing Gas Consumption Rates and CO
2
Absorbent Usage.
CO
2
Absorbent
Diving
Equipment
Overbottom
Pressure (Minimum)
Gas Consumption
(Normal)
Gas Consumption
(Heavy Work)
Capacity
(lbs.)
Duration 40°F
(Note 1)
Duration 70°F
(Note 1)
MK 16 UBA
(Mixed-gas)
Variable with bottle
pressure
12-15
psi/min
15-17
psi/min
7.75-8.0 5h 6h 40m
Note
:
1. CO
2
absorbent duration is based upon a comfortable work rate (0.8-knot swimming speed).
F
V
P
1
T
2
T
1
------
×


P
R
VO
2
14.7 psi
×
------------------------------------------
×
492
T
2
---------
×
17-12 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 4
VO
2
= Oxygen consumption in medical scfm (32°F)
T
1
= Ambient air temperature in °R
T
2
= Coldest water temperature expected in °R
Rankine conversion factor:
°R = °F + 460
All pressure and temperature units must be absolute.
17-4.1.1.5
Example.
The endurance of a MK 16 MOD 0 UBA charged to 2,500 psig for a
dive in 50° F water when the ambient air temperature is 65° F would be computed
as follows:
This duration assumes no gas loss from the UBA during the dive and only
considers metabolic consumption of oxygen by the diver. Divers must be trained
to minimize gas loss by avoiding leaks and unnecessary depth changes. Clearing a
flooded face mask is a common cause of gas loss from the UBA. When a full face
mask (FFM) is used, gas can pass from the UBA breathing loop into the FFM and
escape into the surrounding seawater due to a poor face seal. Leaks that continue
unchecked can deplete UBA gas supply rapidly. Additionally, during diver ascent,
the dump valve opens to discharge breathing gas into the surrounding water,
thereby preventing overinflation of the breathing diaphragm. Depth changes
should be avoided as much as possible to minimize this gas loss.
17-4.1.2
Diluent Flask Endurance.
Under normal conditions the anticipated duration of
the MK 16 diluent flask will exceed that of the oxygen flask. The MK 16 diluent
bottle holds approximately 21 standard cubic feet (595 liters) of gas at a stored
pressure of 3,000 psig. Diluent gas is used to maintain the required gas volume in
the breathing loop and is not depleted by metabolic consumption. As the diver
descends, diluent is added to maintain the total pressure within the recirculation
system at ambient water pressure. Loss of UBA gas due to offgassing at depth
requires the addition of diluent gas to the breathing loop either automatically
through the diluent add valve or manually through the diluent bypass valve to
make up lost volume. Excessive gas loss caused by face mask leaks, frequent
depth changes, or improper UBA assembly will deplete the diluent gas supply
rapidly.
17-4.1.3
Canister Duration.
Canister duration is estimated by using a working diver
scenario. This allows an adequate safety margin for the diver in any situation.
Table 17-4 shows the canister duration limits and approved absorbents for the MK
16 UBA.
MK 16 gas endurance 0.1
2 514.7
,
510 525
×()
514.7
[]
0.049 14.7
×
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
×
492
510
---------
×
=
258 minutes=
CHAPTER 17 — Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Diving 17-13
17-4.1.4
Thermal Protection.
Divers must be equipped with adequate thermal protection
to perform effectively and safely. A cold diver will either begin to shiver or
increase his exercise rate, both of which will increase oxygen consumption and
decrease oxygen supply duration and canister duration. Refer to Chapter 11 for
guidance on thermal protection.
17-4.2
Equipment Requirements.
Equipment requirements for closed-circuit mixed-gas
UBA training dives are provided in Table 17-5. Two equipment items merit
special comment:
Safety Boat
. A minimum of one motorized safety boat must be present for all
open-water dives. A safety boat is also recommended for tended pier dives or
diving from shore. Safe diving practice in many situations, however, will
require the presence of more than one safety boat. The Diving Supervisor must
determine the number of boats required based on the diving area, medical
evacuation plan, night operations, and the number of personnel participating in
the dive operation.
Buddy Lines
. Buddy lines are considered important safety equipment for
closed-circuit UBA dives. In special diving situations, such as certain combat
swimmer operations or tended diving, the use of buddy lines may not be feasi-
ble. The Diving Supervisor shall conduct dives without buddy lines only in
situations where their use is not feasible or where their use will pose a greater
hazard to the divers than by diving without them.
Table 17-4. MK 16 Canister Duration Limits.
Canister Duration with HeO
2
Temperature (°F) Depth (fsw) Time (minutes)
40 and above 0-300 300
29-39 0-100 300
35-39 101-300 240
29-34 101-300 120
Canister Duration with N
2
0
2
Temperature (°F) Depth (fsw) Time (minutes)
29 and above 0-50 300
40 and above 51-150 200
29-39 51-150 100
NAVSEA-Approved Sodalime CO
2
Absorbents
Name Vendor NSN
High Performance Sodasorb, Regular W.R. Grace 6810-01-113-0110
Sofnolime 4-8 Mesh NI, L Grade O.C. Lugo 6810-01-113-0110
Sofnolime 8-12 Mesh NI, D Grade O.C. Lugo 6810-01-412-0637
17-14 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 4
17-4.2.1
Distance Line.
Any buddy line over 10 feet (3 meters) in length is referred to as a
distance line. The length of the distance line shall not exceed 81 feet (25 meters).
Distance lines shall be securely attached to both divers.
17-4.2.2
Standby Diver.
When appropriate during training and non-influence diving opera-
tions, open circuit scuba may be used to a maximum depth of 130 fsw.
17-4.2.3
Lines.
Diver marker lines shall be manufactured from any light line that is
buoyant and easily marked as directed in paragraph 17-4.2.4 (one-quarter inch
polypropylene is quite suitable).
17-4.2.4
Marking of Lines.
Lines used for controlling the depth of the diver(s) for decom-
pression diving shall be marked. This includes tending lines, marker lines, and
Table 17-5. MK 16 UBA Diving Equipment Requirements.
General Diving Supervisor Divers Standby Diver
1. Motorized safety boat
(Note 1)
1. Dive watch 1. Dive watch (Note 2) 1. Dive watch
2. Radio (communications
with parent unit, chamber,
communication between
safety boats when
feasible)
2. Dive Bill list 2. Face mask 2. Face mask
3. High-intensity, wide-beam
light (night operations)
3. U.S. Navy Standard Air
Decompression Tables
3. Fins 3. Fins
4. Dive flags and/or special
operations lights as
required
4. Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas
UBA Decompression Ta-
bles using 0.7 ATA Con-
stant Partial Pressure Ox-
ygen in Nitrogen and in
Helium.
4. Dive knife 4. Dive knife
5. Sufficient (2 quarts) fresh
water in case of chemical
injury
5. Recall device 5. Approved life preserver 5. Approved life preserver
6. Appropriate thermal
protection
6. Appropriate thermal
protection
7. Depth gauge (Note 2) 7. UBA with same depth
capability
8. Buddy line (as
appropriate for
EOD/SPECWAR
operations) (Note 1)
8. Depth gauge
9. Tending line (as
appropriate for EOD
operations) (Note 3)
9. Weight belt (if needed)
10. Tending line
Notes:
1. See paragraph 17-4.2
2. See paragraph 17-4.2.6
3. See paragraph 17-4.4.4
CHAPTER 17 — Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Diving 17-15
lazy-shot lines. Lines shall be marked with red and yellow or black bands starting
at the diver(s) or clump end. Red bands will indicate 50 feet and yellow or black
bands will mark every 10 feet.
17-4.2.5
Diver Marker Buoy.
Diver marker buoys will be constructed to provide adequate
visual reference to monitor the divers location. Additionally, the amount of line
will be of sufficient length for the planned dive profile.
17-4.2.6
Depth Gauge/Wrist Watch.
A single depth gauge and wrist watch may be used
when diving with a partner and using a distance line.
17-4.3
Recompression Chamber Considerations.
A recompression chamber and a
Diving Medical Officer are not required on station (on station is defined as at the
dive location) as prerequisites for closed-circuit UBA diving operations, unless the
dive(s) will exceed the normal working limit. However, the following items
should be determined prior to beginning diving operations:
Location of the nearest functional recompression chamber. Positive confirma-
tion of the chambers availability in case of emergency should be obtained.
Location of the nearest available Diving Medical Officer if not at the nearest
recompression chamber.
Location of the nearest medical facility for treatment of injuries and medical
problems not requiring recompression therapy.
The optimal method of transportation to the treatment chamber or medical
facility. If coordination with other units for aircraft/boat/vehicle support is
necessary, the Diving Supervisor shall know the telephone numbers and points
of contact necessary to make these facilities available as quickly as possible in
case of emergency. A medical evacuation plan should be included in the Div-
ing Supervisor brief. Preparing an emergency assistance checklist similar to
that in Chapter 6 is recommended.
17-4.4
Diving Procedures for MK 16.
17-4.4.1
Employing a Single, Untended EOD Diver.
Generally, it is safer for divers to
work in pairs rather than singly. However, to do so when diving on underwater
influence ordnance doubles the diver bottom time expended, increases the risk to
life from live ordnance detonation, and increases the risk of detonation caused by
the additional influence signature of the second diver. The EOD Diving Officer
may authorize the employment of a single, untended diver when it is deemed that
the ordnance hazard is greater than the hazard presented by diving alone. All
single, untended divers must use a full face mask (FFM). The EOD Diving Officer
or Diving Supervisor shall consider the following factors when deciding whether
to operate singly or in pairs:
Experience of the diver
Confidence of the team
17-16 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 4
Type and condition of ordnance suspected
Environmental conditions
Degree of operational urgency required
17-4.4.2
Simulated Training Scenarios.
Simulated ordnance training scenarios do not
constitute a real threat, therefore single untended divers shall not be used in
training operations. The diver shall be surface tended or marked by attaching a
buoy to him.
17-4.4.3
EOD Standard Safety Procedures.
The following standard safety procedures
shall be observed during EOD diving operations:
An EOD Diving Officer shall be on scene during all phases of an explosive
ordnance disposal diving operation involving a Render Safe Procedure (RSP).
When diving on unknown or influence ordnance, the standby divers equip-
ment shall be the same type as the diver neutralizing the ordnance.
17-4.4.4
Diving Methods.
Diving methods include:
Single Marked Diving
. Consists of a single diver with FFM marked with a
lightweight buoyant line attached to a surface float. Upon completion of a dive
requiring decompression, the diver will signal the diving supervisor that he is
ready to surface. The diving boat will then approach the surface float and
recover the diver.
Paired Marked Diving
. Procedures for paired marked diving are identical to
the procedures for a single marked diver, but with the addition of the second
diver connected by a buddy/distance line.
CHAPTER 17 — Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Diving 17-17
Tended Diving
. Tended diving
consists of a single surface-
tended diver or a pair of divers
using a buddy/distance line, with
one diver wearing a depth-
marked line that is continuously
tended at the surface (Figure
17-5). A dive pair working off a
master reference buoy is closely
and continuously monitored at the
surface. Divers shall each be pos-
itively attached to the system or
one diver positively attached to
the system and the other posi-
tively attached to the first.
17-4.5
Ship Safety.
When operations are to
be conducted in the vicinity of ships,
the guidelines provided in the Ship
Repair Safety Checklist (see Chapter
6) must be followed.
17-4.6
Operational Area Clearance.
Notifi-
cation of intent to conduct diving op-
erations should be coordinated in ac-
cordance with local directives.
17-5
PREDIVE PROCEDURES
17-5.1
Diving Supervisor Brief.
A thorough, well-prepared dive briefing reinforces the
confidence level of the divers and increases safety, and is an important factor in
successful mission accomplishment. It should normally be given by the Diving
Supervisor, who will be in charge of all diving operations on the scene. The
briefing shall be given separately from the overall mission briefing and shall focus
on the diving portion of the operation, with special attention to the items shown in
Table 17-6. MK 16 UBA line-pull dive signals are listed in Table 17-7. For MK 16
UBA diving, use the appropriate checklist provided in the MK16 UBA O&M
Manual. It is recommended that the Dive Record Sheet shown in Figure 17-6 be
used by Diving Supervisors for MK 16 diving.
17-5.2
Diving Supervisor Check.
As the divers set up their UBAs prior to the dive, the
Diving Supervisor must ensure that each diver checks his own equipment, that
setup is completed properly by checking the UBA, and that each diver completes a
UBA predive checklist from the appropriate UBA operation and maintenance
manual. The second phase of the Diving Supervisor check is a predive inspection
conducted after the divers are dressed. The Diving Supervisor ensures that the
UBA and related gear (life preserver, weight belt, etc.) are properly donned, that
mission-related equipment (compass, depth gauge, dive watch, buddy lines,
Figure 17-5.
Single Surface-Tended
Diver.
17-18 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 4
Table 17-6. MK 16 UBA Dive Briefing.
A. Dive Plan
1. Operatin
g
Depth
2. Dive times
3. CSMD tables or decompression tables
4. Distance, bearin
g
, and transit times
5. All known obstacles or hazards
B. Environment
1. Weather conditions
2. Water/air temperatures
3. Water visibility
4. Tides/currents
5. Depth of water
6. Bottom type
7. Geo
g
raphic location
C. Personnel Assignments
1. Dive pairs
2. Divin
g
Supervisor
3. Divin
g
Officer (Note 1)
4. Standby diver
5. Divin
g
medical personnel
6. Base of operations support personnel
D. Special Equipment for:
1. Divers (include thermal
g
arments)
2. Divin
g
Supervisor
3. Standby diver
4. Medical personnel
E. Review of Dive Signals
1. Hand si
g
nals
2. MK 16 UBA Line-Pull Dive Si
g
nals (Table 17-7)
F. Communications
1. Frequencies, primary/secondary
2. Call si
g
ns
G. Emergency Procedures
1. Symptoms of CO
2
buildup
2. Review of mana
g
ement of CO
2
toxicity, hypoxia,
chemical injury, unconscious diver
3. UBA malfunction (refer to maintenance manual for
detailed discussion)
Oxy
en sensor failure
Low partial pressure of oxy
en
Hi
h partial pressure of oxy
en
Electronics failure
Low battery
Diluent free flow
Diluent addition valve failure
System floodin
4. Lost swim pair procedures
5. Omitted decompression plan
6. Medical evacuation plan
Nearest available chamber
Nearest Divin
Medical Officer
Transportation Plan
Recovery of other swim pairs
H. Times for Operations
I. Time Check
Note 1: EOD Divin
g
Officer is not required on site except durin
g
render safe procedure.
Table 17-7. MK 16 UBA Line-Pull Signals.
Signal From To Meaning
1 Pull Diver Tender Arrived at lazy shot (
g
iven on lazy shot)
7 Pulls Diver Tender I have started, found, or completed work.
2-3 Pulls Diver Tender I have decompression symptoms.
3-2 Pulls Diver Tender Breathin
g
from EBS
4-2 Pulls Diver Tender Ri
g
Malfunction
2-1 Pulls Diver
Tender
Tender
Diver
Unshackle from the lazy shot.
CHAPTER 17 — Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Diving 17-19
tactical equipment, etc.) are available, and that the UBA functions properly before
allowing the divers to enter the water. Appropriate check lists to confirm proper
functioning of the UBA are provided in the MK 16 O&M manual.
17-6
WATER ENTRY AND DESCENT
The maximum descent rate is 60 feet per minute. During descent, the UBA will
automatically compensate for increased water pressure and provide an adequate
volume of gas for breathing. During descent the oxygen partial pressure may
increase as oxygen is added to the breathing mixture as a portion of the diluent.
Depending on rate and depth of descent, the primary display on the MK 16 UBA
may illuminate flashing green. It may take from 2 to 15 minutes to consume the
additional oxygen added by the diluent during descent. While breathing down the
ppO
2
, the diver should continuously monitor the primary and secondary display
until the ppO
2
returns to setpoint level.
17-7
UNDERWATER PROCEDURES
17-7.1
General Guidelines.
The divers should adhere to the following guidelines as the
dive is conducted:
Monitor primary and secondary display frequently (every 2-3 minutes)
Wear adequate thermal protection
Know and use the proper amount of weights for the thermal protection worn
and the equipment carried
Check each others equipment carefully for leaks at the start of the dive
Do not exceed the UBA canister duration and depth limitations for the dive
(paragraph 17-4.1.3)
Minimize gas loss from the UBA (avoid mask leaks and frequent depth
changes, if possible)
Maintain frequent visual or touch checks with buddy
Be alert for symptoms suggestive of a medical disorder (paragraph 17-11)
Use tides and currents to maximum advantage
17-7.2
At Depth.
If the UBA is performing normally at depth, no adjustments will be
required. The ppO
2
control system will add oxygen from time to time. Monitor
UBA primary and secondary displays and high pressure gauges in strict accor-
dance with the MK 16 O&M manual. Items to monitor include:
Primary Display
. Check the primary display frequently as outlined in the MK
16 O&M manual (paragraph 3-4.6.1) to ensure that the oxygen level remains
17-20 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 4
MK 16 MOD 0 DIVE RECORD SHEET
Divin
g
Supervisor Date
Water Temp Air Temp Depth (fsw)
Table Schedule Planned Bottom Time
Required EBS Pressure Actual EBS Pressure
Name Repet
Group
Ri
g
No.
O
2
Pressure
Diluent
Pressure
Batt
%
LS LB RS TBT
Diver 1
Diver 2
Standby
Diver
Descent
Rate
Scheduled Time at Stop Stop Depth Actual Time at Stop Travel
Time
Remarks
Divers Standby Divers Standby
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Figure 17-6.
MK 16 MOD 0 Dive Record Sheet.
CHAPTER 17 — Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Diving 17-21
at the setpoint during normal activity at a constant depth (the oxygen-addition
valve operation on the MK 16 cannot be heard).
Secondary Display
. Check the secondary display frequently (every 2-3 min-
utes) as outlined in the MK 16 O&M manual (paragraph 3-4.6.2) to ensure that
all sensors are consistent with the primary display and that plus and minus bat-
tery voltages are properly indicating.
High-Pressure Indicators
. Check the oxygen- and diluent-pressure indicators
frequently as outlined in the MK 16 O&M manual (paragraph 3-4.6.3) to
ensure that the gas supply is adequate to complete the dive.
17-8
ASCENT PROCEDURES
The maximum ascent rate for the MK 16 is 30 feet per minute. During ascent,
when water pressure decreases, the diaphragm dump valve compensates for
increased gas volume by discharging the excess gas into the water. As a result,
oxygen in the breathing gas mixture may be vented faster than O
2
is replaced by
the addition valve. In this case, the primary display may alternate red/green before
the low-ppO
2
signal (blinking red) appears. This is a normal transition period and
shall not cause concern. Monitor the secondary display and add oxygen by
depressing the bypass valve during this instance.
17-9
POSTDIVE PROCEDURES
Postdive procedures shall be completed in accordance with the appropriate post-
dive checklists in the MK 16 UBA O&M manual.
17-10
DECOMPRESSION PROCEDURES
When diving with an open-circuit UBA, ppO
2
increases with depth. With a
closed-circuit UBA, ppO
2
remains constant at a preset level regardless of depth.
Therefore, standard U.S. Navy decompression tables cannot be used.
17-10.1
Use of Constant ppO
2
Decompression Tables.
Closed-circuit UBA users must
use constant ppO
2
decompression tables Oxygen in Nitrogen (air diluent), and
Oxygen in Helium (Helium-Oxygen diluent). Closed-circuit, mixed-gas UBA
decompression tables (Table 17-14 and Table 17-15) are included at the end of this
chapter.
17-10.2
Monitoring ppO
2
.
During decompression, it is very important to frequently
monitor the secondary display and ensure a 0.7 ppO
2
is maintained as closely as
possible. Always use the appropriate decompression table when surfacing, even if
UBA malfunction has significantly altered the ppO
2
.
NOTE Surface decompression is not authorized for MK 16 operations.
Appropriate surface decompression tables have not been developed for
constant 0.7 ata ppO
2
closed-circuit divin
g
.
17-22 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 4
17-10.3
Rules for Using 0.7 ata Constant ppO
2
in Nitrogen and in Helium
Decompression Tables.
NOTE The rules usin
g
the 0.7 ata ppO
2
tables are the same for nitro
g
en and
helium; however, the tables are not interchan
g
eable.
These tables are designed to be used with MK 16 UBA (or any other constant
ppO
2
closed-circuit UBA) with an oxygen setpoint of 0.7 ata or higher.
When using helium as the inert gas, the amount of nitrogen must be minimized
in the breathing loop. Flush the UBA well with helium-oxygen using proper
purge procedure in the MK 16 UBA O&M manual.
Tables are grouped by depth and within each depth group is a limit line. These
tables are designed to be dived to the limit line. Schedules below the limit line
provide for unforeseen circumstances when a diver might experience an inad-
vertent downward excursion or for an unforeseen reason overstay the planned
bottom time.
Tables/schedules are selected according to the maximum depth obtained dur-
ing the dive and the bottom time (time from leaving the surface to leaving the
bottom).
General rules for using these tables are the same as for standard air tables:
1.
Enter the table at the listed depth that is exactly equal to or is next greater
than the maximum depth attained during the dive.
2.
Select the bottom time from those listed for the selected depth that is
exactly equal to or is next greater than the bottom time of the dive.
3.
Never attempt to interpolate between decompression schedules.
4.
Use the decompression stops listed for the selected bottom time.
5.
Ensure that the diver's chest is maintained as close as possible to each
decompression depth for the number of minutes listed.
6.
Maximum ascent rate is 30 feet per minute.
7.
Begin timing each stop on arrival at the decompression stop depth and
resume ascent when the specified time has elapsed. Do not include ascent
time as part of stop time.
8.
The last stop may be taken at 20 fsw if desired. After completing the
prescribed 20-fsw stop, remain at any depth between 10 fsw and 20 fsw
inclusive for the 10-fsw stop time as noted in the appropriate
decompression table.
CHAPTER 17 — Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Diving 17-23
9.
Always use the appropriate decompression table when surfacing even if
UBA malfunction has significantly altered ppO
2
.
In emergency situations (e.g., UBA flood-out or failure), immediately ascend
to the first decompression stop according to the original decompression sched-
ule if deeper than the first stop, and shift to the Emergency Breathing System
(EBS). The subsequent decompression is modified according to the diluent gas
originally breathed.
Helium-Oxygen Diluent
. Follow the original HeO
2
decompression
schedule without modification while breathing air.
Nitrogen-Oxygen (Air) Diluent
. Double all remaining decompression
stops while breathing air. If the switch to emergency air is made
while at a decompression stop, then double the remaining time at that
stop and all shallower stops. If a planned decompression dive falls
within a no-decompression limit and a switch to EBS has occurred, a
mandatory 10-minute stop at 20 fsw is required.
If either of these procedures is used, the diver should be closely observed for
signs of decompression sickness for 2 hours following the dive, but need not be
treated unless symptoms arise.
When selecting the proper decompression table, all dives within the past 12
hours must be considered. Repetitive dives are allowed. Repetitive diving
decompression procedures vary depending on the breathing medium(s)
selected for past dives and for the current dive. If a dive resulted in breathing
from the EBS then no repetitive dives shall be made within the next 12 hours.
Refer to the following tables:
Table 17-8a for Repetitive Dive Procedures for Various Gas Medi-
ums.
Figure 17-7 for the Dive Worksheet for Repetitive 0.7 ata Constant
Partial Pressure Oxygen in Nitrogen Dives.
Table 17-9 for the No-Decompression Limits and Repetitive Group
Designation Table for No-Decompression 0.7 ata Constant Partial
Pressure Oxygen in Nitrogen Dives.
Table 17-10 for the Residual Nitrogen Timetable for Repetitive 0.7
ata Constant Partial Pressure Oxygen in Nitrogen Dives.
17-10.4
PPO
2
Variances.
The ppO
2
in the MK 16 UBAs is expected to vary slightly from
0.6 - 0.9 ata for irregular brief intervals. This does not constitute a malfunction.
The decompression tables were calculated and tested using functioning or proto-
type MK 16 UBAs. When addition of oxygen to the UBA is manually controlled,
17-24 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 4
Table 17-8a. Repetitive Dive Procedures for Various Gas Mediums.
WARNING
No repetitive dives are authorized after an
emer
g
ency procedure requirin
g
a shift to the EBS.
Selection of Repetitive Procedures for Various Gas Mediums
Previous Breathing Medium
(Refer to Notes 1, 2, and 3)
Current Breathing Medium Procedure from Table 17-8b
N
2
O
2
N
2
O
2
A
Air N
2
O
2
B
N
2
O
2
Air C
HeO
2
HeO
2
D
HeO
2
Air E
Air HeO
2
F
HeO
2
N
2
O
2
G
N
2
O
2
HeO
2
H
Notes:
1. If a breathin
g
medium containin
g
helium was breathed at any time durin
g
the 12-hour period immediately precedin
g
a
dive, use HeO
2
as the previous breathin
g
medium.
2. If 100 percent oxy
g
en rebreathers are used on a dive in conjunction with other breathin
g
g
ases, treat that portion of the
dive as if 0.7 ATA O
2
in N
2
was breathed.
3. If both air and 0.7 ATA O
2
in N
2
are breathed durin
g
a dive, treat the entire dive as an air dive. If the 0.7 ata O
2
in N
2
is
breathed at depths 80 fsw or deeper, add the followin
g
correction factors to the maximum depth when selectin
g
the
appropriate air table.
Maximum Depth on N
2
O
2
Correction Factor
Not exceedin
g
80 FSW 0
81-99 Plus 5
100-119 Plus 10
120-139 Plus 15
140-150 Plus 20
CHAPTER 17 — Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Diving 17-25
Table 17-8b. Repetitive Dive Procedures for Various Gas Mediums.
Notes
:
A. (1) Use the Worksheet (Fi
g
ure 17-7) for calculations.
(2) Determine the repetitive
g
roup letter for depth and time of dive conducted from Table 17-9 for no-decompression
dives or from the Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Tables (Table 17-14 and Table 17-15) for
decompression dives. If the exact time or depth is not found,
g
o to the next lon
g
er time or the next deeper depth.
(3) Locate the repetitive
g
roup letter in Table 17-10. Move across the table to the correct surface interval time. Move
down to the bottom of the column for the new
g
roup desi
g
nation.
(4) Move down the column of the new
g
roup desi
g
nation to the depth of the planned dive. This is the residual nitro
g
en
time (RNT). Add this to the planned bottom time of the next dive to find the decompression schedule and the new
g
roup desi
g
nation.
(5) RNT Exception Rule: If the repetitive dive is to the same depth or deeper than the depth of the previous dive, and
the RNT is lon
g
er than the ori
g
inal bottom time, use the ori
g
inal bottom time.
B. Use the repetitive
g
roup desi
g
nation from the standard air decompression table or the no-decompression limits and
repetitive
g
roup desi
g
nation table for no-decompression air dives to enter Table 17-10. Compute the RNT as in
procedure A. Do not use the residual nitro
g
en timetable for repetitive air dives to find the RNT.
C. (1) Determine the repetitive
g
roup desi
g
nation for depth and time of dive conducted from Table 17-9 or Table 17-14. If
the exact time or depth is not found,
g
o to the next lon
g
er time or the next deeper depth.
(2) Locate the repetitive
g
roup letter in Table 17-10. Move across the table to the correct surface-interval time. Move
down to the bottom of the column for the new
g
roup desi
g
nation.
(3) Use the repetitive
g
roup desi
g
nation from Table 17-10 as the new
g
roup desi
g
nation in the residual nitro
g
en
timetable for repetitive air dives (Chapter 10) to find the RNT.
D. Add the bottom time of the current dive to the sum of the bottom times for all dives within the past 12 hours to
g
et the
adjusted bottom time. Use the maximum depth attained within the past 12 hours and the adjusted bottom time to select
the appropriate profile from Table 17-15.
E. Add the bottom times of all dives within the past 12 hours to
g
et an adjusted bottom time. Usin
g
the standard air
decompression table, find the maximum depth attained durin
g
the past 12 hours and the adjusted bottom time. The
repetitive
g
roup from this air table may then be used as the surfacin
g
repetitive
g
roup from the last dive. The residual
nitro
g
en timetable for repetitive air dives is used to find the repetitive
g
roup at the end of the current surface interval and
the appropriate residual nitro
g
en time for the current air dive.
F. Compute the RNT from the residual nitro
g
en timetable for repetitive air dives usin
g
the depth of the planned dive. Add
the RNT to the planned bottom time to
g
et the adjusted bottom time. Use Table 17-15 for the adjusted bottom time at the
planned depth.
G. Add the bottom times of all dives within the past 12 hours to
g
et an adjusted bottom time. Usin
g
Table 17-14, find the
maximum depth attained durin
g
the past 12 hours and the adjusted bottom time. The repetitive
g
roup from the table
may then be used as the surfacin
g
repetitive
g
roup from the last dive. Table 17-10 is used to find the repetitive
g
roup at
the end of the current surface interval and the appropriate RNT for the current dive.
H. Compute the RNT from Table 17-10 usin
g
the depth of the previous dive. Add the RNT to the planned bottom time to
g
et
the adjusted bottom time. Use Table 17-14 for the adjusted bottom time at the planned depth.
17-26 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 4
REPETITIVE DIVE WORKSHEET
FOR
0.7 ATA N
2
O
2
DIVES
Part 1. Previous Dive: minutes
feet
repetitive group designator from Table 17-9
Part 2. Surface Interval: hours minutes on the surface
final repetitive group from Table 17-10
Part 3. Equivalent Single Dive Time:
Enter Table 17-10 at the depth row for the new dive and the column of the final repetitive group to find
the corresponding Residual Nitrogen Time (RNT).
minutes RNT
+ minutes planned bottom time
= minutes equivalent single dive time
Part 4. Decompression Schedule for the Repetitive Dive:
minutes equivalent single dive time from Part 3
feet, depth of the repetitive dive.
Figure 17-7.
Dive Worksheet for Repetitive 0.7 ata Constant Partial Pressure Oxygen in Nitrogen Dives.
CHAPTER 17 — Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Diving 17-27
Table 17-9. No-Decompression Limits and Repetitive Group Designation Table for 0.7 ata Constant
Partial Pressure Oxygen in Nitrogen Dives.
Repetitive Group Designation
Depth No-Decompression
Limits (min)
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Z
10 Unlimited 720
20 720 154 423 720
30 720 31 50 73 98 128 165 211 273 373 634 720
40 367 17 27 38 50 63 76 91 107 125 144 167 192 222 258 304 367
50 143 12 19 26 34 42 50 59 68 78 88 99 111 123 137 143
60 74 9 14 20 25 31 37 43 50 57 64 71 74
70 51 711162025303439455051
80 39 6 10 13 17 21 25 29 33 37 39
90 32 5 8 11 14 18 21 24 28 31 32
100 27 5 7 10 13 15 18 21 24 27
110 24 4 6 9 11 14 16 19 21 24
120 19 4 6 8 10 12 15 17 19
130 16 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 16
140 13 3 5 7 8 10 12 13
150 11 3468911
Limit Line
160 9 3 4 6 7 9
170 8 34578
17-28 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 4
Table 17-10. Residual Nitrogen Timetable for Repetitive 0.7 ata Constant Partial Pressure Oxygen in
Nitrogen Dives.
A
0:00
4:46*
B
0:00
2:35
2:36
6:03*
C
0:00
1:57
1:58
3:29
3:30
6:57*
D
0:00
1:50
1:51
2:49
2:50
4:21
4:22
7:49*
E
0:00
1:15
1:16
2:42
2:43
3:42
3:43
5:13
5:14
8:42
F
0:00
0:44
0:45
2:08
2:09
3:34
3:35
4:34
4:35
6:06
6:07
9:34*
G
0:00
0:54
0:55
1:36
1:37
3:00
3:01
4:26
4:27
5:26
5:27
6:58
6:59
10:26*
H
0:00
1:04
1:05
1:46
1:47
2:28
2:29
3:52
3:53
5:19
5:20
6:18
6:19
7:50
7:51
10:18*
I
0:00
1:15
1:16
1:57
1:58
2:38
2:39
3:20
3:21
4:44
4:45
6:11
6:12
7:11
7:12
8:42
8:43
12:10*
J
0:00
0:43
0:44
2:07
2:08
2:49
2:50
3:31
3:32
4:13
4:14
5:36
5:37
7:03
7:04
8:03
8:04
9:35
9:36
12:43*
K
0:00
0:53
0:54
1:35
1:36
2:59
3:00
3:41
3:42
4:23
4:24
5:05
5:06
6:29
6:30
7:25
7:26
8:55
8:56
10:27
10:28
10:55*
L
0:00
1:04
1:05
1:46
1:47
2:27
2:28
3:51
3:52
4:33
4:34
5:15
5:16
5:57
5:58
7:21
7:22
8:48
8:49
9:47
9:48
11:19
11:20
14:47*
M
0:00
0:32
0:33
1:56
1:57
2:36
2:37
3:20
3:21
4:44
4:45
5:25
5:26
6:07
6:08
6:49
6:50
8:13
8:14
9:40
9:41
10:39
10:40
12:11
12:12
15:39*
N
0:00
0:42
0:43
1:24
1:25
2:48
2:49
3:30
3:31
4:12
4:13
5:36
5:37
6:18
6:19
7:00
7:01
7:41
7:42
9:05
9:06
10:32
10:33
11:32
11:33
13:03
13:04
16:31*
O
0:00
0:53
0:54
1:35
1:36
2:16
2:17
3:40
3:41
4:22
4:23
5:04
5:05
6:28
6:29
7:10
7:11
7:52
7:53
8:34
8:35
9:44
9:45
11:24
11:25
12:24
12:25
13:56
13:57
17:24*
Z
0:00
1:03
1:04
1:45
1:46
2:27
2:28
3:09
3:10
4:32
4:33
5:14
5:15
5:56
5:57
7:20
7:21
8:02
8:03
8:44
8:45
9:20
9:21
10:51
10:52
12:16
12:17
13:16
13:17
14:48
14:49
18:16*
ZONMLKJ IHGFEDCBA
New Group Designation
10 12:00
20 12:00 7:03 2:34
30 12:00 10:34 6:13 4:33 3:31 2:45 2:08 1:38 1:13 0:50 0:31
40 6:07 5:04 4:18 3:42 3:12 2:47 2:24 2:05 1:47 1:31 1:16 1:03 0:50 0:38 0:27 0:17
50 3:10 2:23 2:17 2:03 1:51 1:39 1:28 1:18 1:08 0:59 0:50 0:42 0:34 0:26 0:19 0:12
60 2:30 1:40 1:30 1:20 1:14 1:11 1:04 0:57 0:50 0:43 0:37 0:31 0:25 0:20 0:14 0:09
70 2:10 1:20 1:10 1:05 1:00 0:51 0:50 0:45 0:39 0:34 0:30 0:25 0:20 0:16 0:11 0:07
80 1:10 1:05 1:00 0:55 0:50 0:45 0:39 0:37 0:33 0:29 0:25 0:21 0:17 0:13 0:10 0:06
90 1:00 0:55 0:50 0:45 0:42 0:40 0:32 0:31 0:28 0:24 0:21 0:18 0:14 0:11 0:08 0:05
100 0:50 0:45 0:42 0:40 0:38 0:35 0:30 0:27 0:24 0:21 0:18 0:15 0:13 0:10 0:07 0:05
110 0:45 0:40 0:37 0:35 0:33 0:30 0:25 0:24 0:21 0:19 0:16 0:14 0:11 0:09 0:06 0:04
120 0:40 0:38 0:35 0:33 0:30 0:28 0:25 0:20 0:19 0:17 0:15 0:12 0:10 0:08 0:06 0:04
130 0:35 0:34 0:32 0:30 0:28 0:25 0:23 0:20 0:16 0:15 0:13 0:11 0:09 0:07 0:05 0:03
140 0:35 0:30 0:28 0:27 0:25 0:23 0:20 0:19 0:16 0:13 0:12 0:10 0:08 0:07 0:05 0:03
150 0:30 0:29 0:27 0:25 0:23 0:20 0:19 0:18 0:16 0:13 0:11 0:09 0:08 0:06 0:04 0:03
160 0:30 0:28 0:25 0:24 0:23 0:20 0:19 0:18 0:15 0:13 0:10 0:09 0:07 0:06 0:04 0:03
170 0:25 0:24 0:23 0:22 0:20 0:19 0:18 0:17 0:15 0:13 0:10 0:08 0:07 0:05 0:04 0:03
Residual Nitrogen Times (Minutes)
* No RNT After This Time
CHAPTER 17 — Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Diving 17-29
ppO
2
should be maintained in accordance with techniques and emergency proce-
dures listed in the MK 16 O&M manual.
The Diving Supervisor and medical personnel should recognize that a diver who
has been breathing a mixture with ppO
2
lower than 0.6 ata for any length of time
may have a greater risk of developing decompression sickness. Such a diver
requires observation after surfacing, but need not be treated unless symptoms of
decompression sickness occur.
17-10.5
Emergency Breathing System (EBS).
The Emergency Breathing System pro-
vides an alternate breathing source for decompressing diver(s) in the event of a
MK 16 failure. The two types of EBS available for use are EBS Type I and EBS
Type II MK 1 Mod 0. The systems have been designed and tested as an accurate
method for topside to control and monitor breathing gas being supplied to a
diver(s) during decompression. The EBS shall be deployed whenever MK 16 de-
compression diving is anticipated. In the event of MK 16 failure or malfunction,
the diver(s) will transfer to the EBS as soon as possible and continue to use the
EBS to complete the decompression profile. It is to be used only for its designed
purpose as discussed in paragraph 17-10.3 as an emergency breathing source and
not as a surface-supplied diving system.
17-10.5.1
EBS Type I.
The EBS type I was designed and is intended to be used only in
support of diving up to 200 fsw. NAVSEA Operation and Maintenance manual
S9592-AN-MMO-010 provides detailed equipment descriptions, reference data,
and information on operation and maintenance. This type of EBS is a non-certified
system (Figure 17-8)
17-10.5.2
EBS Type II MK 1 Mod 0.
The EBS II is a certified surface-supplied, in-water
emergency life-support system, with capabilities to support two divers during
decompression for dive profiles to 300 fsw (Figure 17-9). The EBS II enables
voice communication capabilities between topside personnel and divers while the
divers are using the MK 24 FFM (Figure 17-10). PEO MINEWAR technical
manual SS600-AL-MMA-010 provides detailed equipment descriptions, reference
data, and information on operation and maintenance.
17-10.5.3
Required Gas Supply for the EBS.
When a decompression dive is planned, the
Diving Supervisor must calculate the volume of gas required should a diver be
required to breathe from the EBS throughout decompression.
17-10.5.3.1
Calculating EBS Gas Requirements.
The following steps may be used to calcu-
late EBS gas requirements (Figure 17-11):
1.
Determine decompression profiles from appropriate closed-circuit mixed-gas
UBA decompression tables using 0.7 ata constant partial pressure of oxygen.
2.
Multiply the time of each decompression stop by the gas consumption rates
(scfm) in Table 17-11 to obtain total volume required per stop. Table 17-11
assumes a light work rate (gas consumption = 0.63 acfm).
17-30 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 4
3.
Total the volumes required per stop to obtain total volume for decompression.
The total should be rounded up to the nearest whole scf.
4.
Multiply the total volume for decompression by a safety factor of 10 percent
and add the product to the volume for decompression for total air volume
required.
The volume of gas available in the EBS I may be obtained from Table 17-12 when
twin 80-cubic foot scuba bottles are employed or from the following formula
when other EBS configurations are used.
EBS Volume Available (SCF) =
Where:
Figure 17-8.
EBS Type 1.
F
V
N
×
P
1
P
R
()×
14.7
-----------------------------------------------
CHAPTER 17 — Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Diving 17-31
Figure 17-9.
EBS II Major Assemblies and Ancillary Equipment.
17-32 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 4
Figure 17-10.
Full Face Mask MK 24 MOD 0.
CHAPTER 17 — Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Diving 17-33
EBS BREATHING GAS VOLUME WORKSHEET
Depth (fsw) Time (min) Consumption (scfm) Total Volume (scf)
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
89
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
Total volume for decompression
Add 10% safety factor
Total standard cubic feet required (scfr)
Figure 17-11.
Total EBS Volume Requirements for Decompression.
17-34 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 4
F
V
= Cylinder Floodable Volume in cubic feet
N = Number of cylinders
P
I
= Initial pressure in psig
P
R
= Reserve pressure in psig
Example
: A set of twin 80-cubic foot scuba cylinders is charged to 2,800 psig. The
floodable volume of one cylinder is 0.399 cubic foot.
After equalization, a reserve pressure of 250 psig is assumed.
Table 17-11. EBS Gas Consumption
at a Light Dive Work Rate.
Table 17-12. EBS Type I Gauge
Pressure Versus SCF Available (for Twin
80-Cubic Foot Scuba Bottles).
Depth (fsw) Gas Consumption (scfm) PSIG SCF
10 0.80 3000 149.3
20 1.00 2900 143.8
30 1.20 2800 138.4
40 1.40 2700 133.0
50 1.60 2600 127.6
60 1.80 2500 122.1
70 2.00 2400 116.7
80 2.20 2300 111.3
90 2.30 2200 105.8
100 2.50 2100 100.4
110 2.70 2000 95.0
120 2.90 1900 89.6
130 3.10 1800 84.1
140 3.30 1700 78.7
150 3.50 1600 73.3
1500 67.8
1400 62.4
1300 57.0
1200 51.5
1100 46.1
1000 40.7
900 35.3
800 29.8
700 24.4
600 19.0
CHAPTER 17 — Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Diving 17-35
The following floodable volume numbers are provided for reference:
Scuba 72 0.420
Scuba 80 0.399
Scuba 90 0.398
K Bottle 1.620
EBS II Bottle 0.926
The volume of gas available in the EBS II may be obtained from its O&M tech-
nical manual, Appendix B.
The above formula may be rearranged as shown below to determine the minimum
bank pressure that will just provide the required EBS volume (V
R
):
17-10.5.4
EBS Deployment Procedures.
1.
When directed by the Diving Supervisor, the EBS tender shall attach the EBS
to either a descent line or the divers marker float and lower the EBS to 10 fsw
below the divers first decompression stop.
2.
Upon arrival at the EBS, the diver(s) shall signal arrival at the EBS (one on the
lazy shot). The EBS tender shall report signal receipt to the Diving Supervisor,
who will control the divers’ ascent to the first decompression stop and
continue to control their ascent and stops throughout in-water decompression.
17-10.6
Omitted Decompression.
Certain emergencies may interrupt or prevent specified
decompression. UBA failure, exhausted diluent or oxygen gas supply, and bodily
injury are examples that constitute such emergencies. Omitted decompression
must be made up to avoid later difficulty. Table 17-13 contains specific guidance
for the initial management of omitted decompression in an asymptomatic MK 16
diver. For further information on omitted decompression, see Chapter 21.
17-10.6.1
At 20 fsw or Shallower.
If the deepest decompression stop omitted is 20 fsw or
shallower, the diver may be returned to the water stop at which the omission
occurred.
If the surface interval was less than 1 minute, add 1 minute to the stop time
and resume the planned decompression at the point of interruption.
If the surface interval was greater than 1 minute, compute a new decompres-
sion schedule by multiplying the 20- and/or 10-foot stop time(s) by 1.5. After
EBS volume available
0.399 2
×
2 800
,
250
()×
14.7
----------------------------------------------------------------
=
138.4 scf=
P
I
V
R
14.7
×
F
V
N
×
------------------------
P
R
+=
17-36 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 4
arrival at the decompression stop at the Diving Supervisor’s discretion the
oxygen partial pressure may be manually adjusted to 1.3 ata (increased-rate
oxygen supply depletion shall be taken into consideration).
Ascend on the new decompression schedule. Alternatively, the diver may be
removed from the water and treated on Treatment Table 5 (Figure 21-7) if the
surface interval is less than 5 minutes, or Treatment Table 6 (Figure 21-8) if
the surface interval is greater than 5 minutes.
17-10.6.2
Deeper than 20 fsw.
If the deepest decompression stop omitted is deeper than 20
fsw, a more serious situation exists. The use of a recompression chamber when
immediately available is mandatory.
If less than 30 minutes of decompression were missed and the surface interval
is less than 5 minutes, treat the diver on Treatment Table 5.
If less than 30 minutes of decompression were missed but the surface interval
exceeds 5 minutes, treat the diver on Treatment Table 6.
Table 17-13. Initial Management of Omitted Decompression in an Asymptomatic MK 16 Diver.
Deepest
Decompression
Stop Omitted
Decompression
Status
Surface
Interval
Action
Chamber Available No Chamber Available
None No decompression
stops required
NA Observe on surface for 1 hour Observe on surface for 1 hour
20 fsw or
shallower
Decompression stops
required
<1 min Return to depth of stop. Increase
stop time by 1 minute. Resume
decompression according to
original schedule.
Return to depth of stop. Increase
stop time by 1 minute. Resume
decompression according to
original schedule.
> 1 min Return to depth of stop. Multiply
20-fsw and/or 10-fsw stop times
by 1.5. Resume decompression.
Or: Treatment Table 5 for surface
interval < 5 min Or: Treatment
Table 6 for surface interval > 5
min
Return to depth of stop. Multiply
20-fsw and/or 10-fsw stop times
by 1.5. Resume decompression.
Deeper than 20
fsw
Decompression stops
required (<30 min
missed)
<5 min Treatment Table 5 Descend to the deepest stop
omitted. Multiply all stops 40 fsw
and shallower by 1.5. Resume
decompression
>5 min Treatment Table 6 Descend to the deepest stop
omitted. Multiply all stops 40 fsw
and shallower by 1.5. Resume
decompression
Decompression stops
required (>30 min
missed)
Any Treatment Table 6 Descend to the deepest stop
omitted. Multiply all stops 40 fsw
and shallower by 1.5. Resume
decompression
CHAPTER 17 — Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Diving 17-37
If more than 30 minutes of decompression were missed, treat the diver on
Treatment Table 6 regardless of the length of the surface interval.
17-10.6.3
Deeper than 20 fsw/No Recompression Chamber Available.
If the deepest de-
compression stop omitted is deeper than 20 fsw and a recompression chamber is
not immediately available, recompression in the water is required. Recompress the
diver in the water using the appropriate 0.7 ata constant ppO
2
decompression
table. Descend to the deepest decompression stop omitted and repeat this stop in
its entirety. Complete decompression on the original schedule, lengthening all
stops 40 fsw and shallower by multiplying the stop time by 1.5. If the deepest stop
was 40 fsw or shallower, this stop should also be multiplied by 1.5. After arrival at
40 fsw or shallower, the oxygen partial pressure may be manually adjusted to 1.3
ata (increased-rate oxygen supply depletion shall be taken into consideration).
When recompression in the water is required, keep the surface interval as short as
possible. The divers UBA must be checked to ensure that it will sustain the diver
for the additional decompression obligation. Switching to a standby UBA may be
necessary so that the decompression time will not be compromised by depletion of
gas supplies or carbon dioxide-absorbent failure. Maintain depth control, keep the
diver at rest, and provide a buddy diver.
17-10.6.4
Evidence of Decompression Sickness or Arterial Gas Embolism.
If the diver
shows evidence of decompression sickness or arterial gas embolism before recom-
pression for omitted decompression can be carried out, immediate treatment using
the appropriate oxygen or air treatment table is essential. Guidance for table selec-
tion and use is given in Chapter 21. Symptoms that develop during treatment of
omitted decompression should be managed in the same manner as recurrences
during treatment.
17-11
MEDICAL ASPECTS OF CLOSED-CIRCUIT MIXED-GAS UBA
When using a closed-circuit mixed-gas UBA, the diver is susceptible to the usual
diving-related illnesses (i.e., decompression sickness, arterial gas embolism,
barotrauma, etc.). Volume 5 gives in-depth coverage of all diving-related
illnesses. For closed-circuit mixed-gas UBAs there are special medical consider-
ations that must be addressed.
17-11.1
Central Nervous System (CNS) Oxygen Toxicity.
Toxic effects may result from
breathing oxygen at high partial pressures. CNS oxygen toxicity is usually not
encountered unless the ppO
2
exceeds 1.6 ata. Environmental factors, however,
such as cold and exercise, can make a diver more susceptible. Though the MK 16
UBA maintains a ppO
2
of approximately 0.7/0.75 ata, a rapid descent may not
allow the oxygen already in the circuit to be consumed fast enough. In addition,
malfunctioning oxygen sensors or oxygen-addition valves can cause a hazardous
oxygen level.
17-11.1.1
Preventing CNS Oxygen Toxicity.
All predive checks must be performed to
ensure proper functioning of the oxygen sensors and oxygen-addition valves.
Monitoring the primary and secondary displays will help ensure that the proper
ppO
2
is maintained. When high levels of oxygen are displayed, the descent must
17-38 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 4
be slowed. If the diver is in less than 20 fsw, little danger of oxygen toxicity exists.
If the diver is deeper than 20 fsw, the O
2
bottle valve shall be secured and manu-
ally controlled to maintain the ppO
2
below 1.3 ata.
17-11.1.2
Symptoms of CNS Oxygen Toxicity.
Symptoms of CNS oxygen toxicity include
convulsion (the most serious symptom) and nonconvulsive symptoms. The symp-
toms may be remembered by the mnemonic device VENTIDC:
V
: Visual symptoms. Tunnel vision, a decrease in the diver’s peripheral vision,
and other symptoms, such as blurred vision, may occur.
E
: Ear symptoms. Tinnitus is any sound perceived by the ears but not resulting
from an external stimulus. The sound may resemble bells ringing, roaring, or a
machinery-like pulsing sound.
N
: Nausea or spasmodic vomiting. These symptoms may be intermittent.
T
: Twitching and tingling symptoms. Any of the small facial muscles, lips, or
muscles of the extremities may be affected. These are the most frequent and
clearest symptoms.
I
: Irritability. Any change in the divers mental status including confusion,
agitation, and anxiety.
D
: Dizziness. Symptoms include clumsiness, incoordination, and unusual fatigue.
C
: Convulsions. The first sign of CNS oxygen toxicity may be a convulsion with
little or no warning.
17-11.1.3
Treating Nonconvulsive Symptoms of CNS Oxygen Toxicity.
If nonconvulsive
symptoms of CNS oxygen toxicity occur, action must be taken immediately to
lower the oxygen partial pressure. Such actions include:
Ascending. Boyle’s law will lower the oxygen partial pressure.
Adding diluent to the breathing loop.
Securing the oxygen cylinder if oxygen addition is uncontrolled.
17-11.1.4
Treating CNS Oxygen Toxicity Convulsions.
If a diver convulses:
1.
Ventilate the UBA with diluent to lower the ppO
2
and maintain depth until the
convulsion subsides.
2.
Make a controlled ascent to the first decompression stop.
If the diver regains control, continue with appropriate decompression.
If the diver remains incapacitated, surface at a moderate rate, establish an
airway, and treat for symptomatic omitted decompression as outlined in
paragraph 17-10.6.
CHAPTER 17 — Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Diving 17-39
Frequent monitoring of the primary and secondary displays (every 2-3 minutes) as
well as the oxygen- and diluent-bottle pressure gauges will keep the diver well
informed of his breathing gas and rig status.
Additional information on recognizing and treating oxygen toxicity is contained in
Chapter 3.
17-11.2
Oxygen Deficiency (Hypoxia).
Oxygen deficiency, or hypoxia, results from
breathing a gas mixture in which the partial pressure of oxygen is too low to meet
the metabolic demands of the body.
17-11.2.1
Causes of Hypoxia.
During a rapid ascent, particularly in shallow water, Boyle’s
law may cause the ppO
2
to fall faster than can be compensated for by the oxygen-
addition system. If, during ascent, low levels of oxygen are displayed, slow the
ascent. Add oxygen if necessary. Depletion of the oxygen supply, or malfunc-
tioning oxygen sensors or oxygen-addition valves, can also lead to a hypoxic gas
mixture.
17-11.2.2
Symptoms of Hypoxia.
In hypoxia, the diver may have no warning symptoms
prior to loss of consciousness. Other symptoms that may appear include incoordi-
nation, confusion, and dizziness.
17-11.2.3
Treating Hypoxia.
If symptoms of hypoxia develop, the diver must take imme-
diate action to raise the oxygen partial pressure. If unconsciousness occurs, the
buddy diver should add oxygen to the rig while monitoring the secondary display.
If the diver does not require decompression, the buddy diver should bring the
afflicted diver to the surface at a moderate rate, remove the mouthpiece or mask,
and have him breathe air. If the event was clearly related to hypoxia and the diver
recovers fully with normal neurological function shortly after breathing surface
air, the diver does not require treatment for arterial gas embolism.
17-11.2.4
Treatment of Hypoxic Divers Requiring Decompression.
If the divers require de-
compression, the buddy diver should bring the afflicted diver to the first
decompression stop.
If consciousness is regained, continue with normal decompression.
If consciousness is not regained, ascend to the surface at a moderate rate (not
to exceed 30 fpm), establish an airway, administer 100-percent oxygen, and
treat for symptomatic omitted decompression as outlined in paragraph
17-10.6. If possible, immediate assistance from the standby diver should be
obtained and the unaffected diver should continue normal decompression.
17-11.3
Carbon Dioxide Toxicity (Hypercapnia).
Hypercapnia, an abnormally high level
of carbon dioxide in the body, may be caused by inadequate carbon dioxide
absorption resulting from channeling, flooding of the canister, or carbon dioxide
saturation of the absorbent material. Hypercapnia may also be caused by skip
breathing or controlled ventilation by the diver.
17-40 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 4
17-11.3.1
Symptoms of Hypercapnia.
Symptoms of hypercapnia include labored breathing,
headache, and confusion. Unconsciousness, however, may occur with little or no
warning.
17-11.3.2
Treating Hypercapnia.
If symptoms of hypercapnia develop, the diver should
immediately stop work and take several deep breaths. This will reduce the level of
carbon dioxide both in the rig and in the diver’s lungs. If symptoms do not rapidly
abate, the diver should ascend to lower the carbon dioxide partial pressure in both
the rig and in the diver’s lungs. If unconsciousness occurs, take the actions
described above for hypoxia.
WARNING
Hypoxia and hypercapnia may
g
ive the diver little or no warnin
g
prior to onset of
unconsciousness.
17-11.4
Chemical Injury.
The term chemical injury refers to the introduction of a caustic
solution from the carbon dioxide scrubber of the UBA into the upper airway of a
diver.
17-11.4.1
Causes of Chemical Injury.
A caustic alkaline solution results when water
leaking into the canister comes in contact with the carbon dioxide absorbent.
When the diver is in a horizontal or head down position, this solution may travel
through the inhalation hose and irritate or injure the upper airway.
17-11.4.2
Symptoms of Chemical Injury.
Before actually inhaling the caustic solution, the
diver may experience labored breathing or headache, which are symptoms of
carbon dioxide buildup in the breathing gas. This occurs because an accumulation
of the caustic solution in the canister may be impairing carbon dioxide absorption.
If the problem is not corrected promptly, the alkaline solution may travel into the
breathing hoses and consequently be inhaled or swallowed. Choking, gagging,
foul taste, and burning of the mouth and throat may begin immediately. This
condition is sometimes referred to as a “caustic cocktail.” The extent of the injury
depends on the amount and distribution of the solution.
17-11.4.3
Management of a Chemical Incident.
If the caustic solution enters the mouth,
nose, or face mask, the diver must take the following steps:
1.
Immediately assume an upright position in the water.
2.
Depress the manual diluent bypass valve continuously.
3.
If the dive is a no-decompression dive, make a controlled ascent to the surface,
exhaling through the nose to prevent overpressurization.
4.
If the dive requires decompression, shift to the EBS or another alternative
breathing supply. If it is not possible to complete the planned decompression,
surface the diver and treat for omitted decompression as outlined in paragraph
17-10.6.
CHAPTER 17 — Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Diving 17-41
Refer to the appropriate operations and maintenance manual for specific emer-
gency procedures.
Using fresh water, rinse the mouth several times. Several mouthfuls should then
be swallowed. If only sea water is available, rinse the mouth but do not swallow.
Other fluids may be substituted if available, but the use of weak acid solutions
(vinegar or lemon juice) is not recommended. Do not attempt to induce vomiting.
A chemical injury may cause the diver to have difficulty breathing properly on
ascent. He should be observed for signs of an arterial gas embolism and should be
treated if necessary. A victim of a chemical injury should be evaluated by a physi-
cian or corpsman as soon as possible. Respiratory distress which may result from
the chemical trauma to the air passages requires immediate hospitalization.
NOTE Performin
g
a careful dip test durin
g
predive setup is essential to detect
system leaks. Additionally, dive buddies shall check each other’s
equipment carefully before leavin
g
the surface at the start of a dive.
17-11.5
Decompression Sickness in the Water.
Decompression sickness may develop in
the water during MK 16 diving. The symptoms of decompression sickness may be
joint pain or may be more serious manifestations such as numbness, loss of
muscular function, or vertigo.
Managing decompression sickness in the water will be difficult in the best of
circumstances. Only general guidance can be presented here. Management deci-
sions must be made on site, taking into account all known factors. The advice of a
Diving Medical Officer should be sought whenever possible.
17-11.5.1
Diver Remaining in Water.
If the diver signals that he has decompression sickness
but feels that he can remain in the water:
1.
Dispatch the standby diver to assist.
2.
Have the diver descend to the depth of relief of symptoms in 10-fsw
increments, but no deeper than two increments (i.e., 20 fsw).
3.
Raise the oxygen partial pressure in the rig manually to 1.3 ata.
4.
Compute a new decompression profile by multiplying all stops by 1.5. If
recompression went deeper than the depth of the first stop on the original
decompression schedule, use a stop time equal to 1.5 times the first stop in the
original decompression schedule for the one or two stops deeper than the
original first stop.
5.
Ascend on the new profile, controlling the rig manually at 1.3 ata until leaving
the 20-fsw stop.
6.
Lengthen stops as needed to control symptoms. Do not combine the 20-fsw
and 10-fsw stops.
17-42 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 4
7.
Upon surfacing, transport the diver to the nearest chamber. If he is
asymptomatic, treat on Treatment Table 5. If he is symptomatic, treat in
accordance with the guidance given in Volume 5, Chapter 21 (Figure 21-3).
17-11.5.2
Diver Leaving the Water.
If the diver signals that he has decompression sickness
but feels that he cannot remain in the water:
1.
Surface the diver at a moderate rate (not to exceed 30 fpm).
2.
If a recompression chamber is on site (i.e., within 30 minutes), recompress the
diver immediately. Guidance for treatment table selection and use is given in
Chapter 21.
If a recompression chamber is not on site, follow the management guidance given
in Volume 5.MK 16 DIVING EQUIPMENT REFERENCE DATA
Figure 17-12 outlines the capabilities and logistical requirements of the MK 16
UBA mixed-gas diving system. Minimum required equipment for the pool phase
of diving conducted at Navy diving schools and MK 16 RDT&E commands may
be modified as necessary. Any modification to the minimum required equipment
listed herein must be noted in approved lesson training guides or SOPs.
CHAPTER 17 — Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Diving 17-43
MK 16 UBA General Characteristics
Principle of Operation:
Self-contained closed-circuit constant ppO
2
system
Minimum Equipment:
1. MK IV or MK 6 (Shadow 806 LM) Life Jacket
with four 30-34-gram CO
2
cartridges
2. Dive knife
3. Swim fins
4. Face mask or full face mask (FFM)
5. Weight belt (as required)
6. Dive watch or Dive Timer/Depth Gauge
(DT/DG) (as required)
7. Depth gauge or DT/DG (as required)
Principal Applications:
1. EOD operations/Special warfare
2. Search and inspection
3. Light repair and recovery
Advantages:
1. Minimal surface bubbles
2. Optimum efficiency of gas supply
3. Portability
4. Excellent mobility
5. Communications (when used with MK 24 FFM)
6. Modularized assembly
7. Low magnetic signature (lo-mu)
8. Low acoustic signature
Disadvantages:
1. Extended decompression requirement for long
bottom times or deep dives.
2. Limited physical and thermal protection
3. No voice communications (unless FFM used)
4. Extensive predive/postdive procedures
Restrictions:
Working limit 150 feet, air diluent; 200 fsw, HeO
2
diluent
Operational Considerations:
1. Dive team (Table 17-1)
2. Safety boat(s) required
3. MK 16 decompression schedule must be used
(unless using CSMD procedure 70 fsw and
shallower, or air decompression procedures 70
fsw and shallower)
Figure 17-12.
MK 16 UBA General Characteristics.
17-44 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 4
Table 17-14.
Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Table Using 0.7 ata Constant Partial
Pressure Oxygen in Nitrogen.
(DESCENT RATE 60 FPM-ASCENT RATE 30 FPM)
Decompression Stops (fsw)
Stop Times (min)
Depth
(fsw)
Bottom
Time
(min.)
Time to
First Stop
(min:sec)
Total
Ascent
Time
(min:sec)
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
Repet
Group
40
367
1:20
0
1:20
Z
Limit Line
370
1:00
1
2:20
*
380
1:00
2
3:20
*
390
1:00
3
4:20
*
50
143
1:40
0
1:40
O
150
1:20
4
5:40
O
160
1:20
8
9:40
O
170
1:20
12
13:40
O
180
1:20
16
17:40
Z
190
1:20
19
20:40
Z
200
1:20
22
23:40
Z
210
1:20
25
26:40
Z
220
1:20
29
30:40
Z
230
1:20
33
34:40
Z
240
1:20
38
39:40
Z
250
1:20
42
43:40
Z
260
1:20
46
47:40
Z
270
1:20
49
50:40
Z
280
1:20
53
54:40
Z
290
1:20
56
57:40
Z
300
1:20
59
60:40
Z
310
1:20
62
63:40
Z
320
1:20
64
65:40
Z
330
1:20
67
68:40
Z
Limit Line
340
1:20
70
71:40
*
350
1:20
73
74:40
*
360
1:20
77
78:40
*
370
1:20
80
81:40
*
380
1:20
84
85:40
*
390
1:20
87
88:40
*
60
74
2:00
0
2:00
L
80
1:40
4
6:00
L
90
1:40
9
11:00
M
100
1:40
13
15:00
N
110
1:40
17
19:00
O
120
1:40
25
27:00
O
130
1:40
32
34:00
O
140
1:40
39
41:00
O
150
1:40
45
47:00
Z
160
1:40
50
52:00
Z
* Repetitive dives are not authorized for dives below the Limit Line.
CHAPTER 17 — Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Diving 17-45
Table 17-14.
Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Table Using 0.7 ata Constant Partial
Pressure Oxygen in Nitrogen (Continued).
(DESCENT RATE 60 FPM-ASCENT RATE 30 FPM)
Decompression Stops (fsw)
Stop Times (min)
Depth
(fsw)
Bottom
Time
(min.)
Time to
First Stop
(min:sec)
Total
Ascent
Time
(min:sec)
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
Repet
Group
60
170
1:40
56
58:00
Z
180
1:20
4
56
65:00
Z
190
1:20
8
62
72:00
Z
200
1:20
12
65
79:00
Z
210
1:20
16
68
86:00
Z
220
1:20
19
71
92:00
Z
230
1:20
22
74
98:00
Z
240
1:20
25
76
103:00
Z
250
1:20
28
79
109:00
Z
260
1:20
30
82
114:00
Z
270
1:20
32
85
119:00
Z
280
1:20
36
87
125:00
Z
Limit Line
290
1:20
40
89
131:00
*
300
1:20
44
92
138:00
*
310
1:20
47
94
143:00
*
320
1:20
51
96
149:00
*
330
1:20
54
98
154:00
*
340
1:20
57
100
159:00
*
350
1:20
60
102
164:00
*
360
1:20
63
105
170:00
*
370
1:20
66
108
176:00
*
380
1:20
68
111
181:00
*
390
1:20
71
114
187:00
*
70
51
2:20
0
2:20
K
60
2:00
9
11:20
L
70
2:00
18
20:20
L
80
2:00
25
27:20
N
90
1:40
3
28
33:20
N
100
1:40
8
33
43:20
O
110
1:40
12
39
53:20
O
120
1:40
16
45
63:20
Z
130
1:40
19
51
72:20
Z
140
1:40
22
56
80:20
Z
150
1:40
29
58
89:20
Z
160
1:40
36
62
100:20
Z
170
1:40
43
65
110:20
Z
Limit Line
180
1:40
48
70
120:20
*
190
1:20
1
53
73
129:20
*
200
1:20
2
57
76
137:20
*
210
1:20
6
57
80
145:20
*
220
1:20
11
56
84
153:20
*
230
1:20
14
59
86
161:20
*
240
1:20
18
62
89
171:20
*
* Repetitive dives are not authorized for dives below the Limit Line.
17-46 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 4
Table 17-14.
Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Table Using 0.7 ata Constant Partial
Pressure Oxygen in Nitrogen (Continued).
(DESCENT RATE 60 FPM-ASCENT RATE 30 FPM)
Decompression Stops (fsw)
Stop Times (min)
Depth
(fsw)
Bottom
Time
(min.)
Time to
First Stop
(min:sec)
Total
Ascent
Time
(min:sec)
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
Repet
Group
70
250
1:20
21
65
92
180:20
*
260
1:20
24
69
93
188:20
*
270
1:20
27
71
97
197:20
*
280
1:20
29
75
99
205:20
*
290
1:20
31
78
102
213:20
*
300
1:20
33
81
105
221:20
*
310
1:20
35
83
110
230:20
*
320
1:20
37
86
113
238:20
*
330
1:20
42
85
118
247:20
*
340
1:20
45
86
124
257:20
*
350
1:20
49
88
127
266:20
*
80
39
2:40
0
2:40
J
40
2:20
1
3:40
J
50
2:20
15
17:40
K
60
2:20
27
29:40
L
70
2:00
9
28
39:40
M
80
2:00
18
28
48:40
N
90
2:00
25
34
61:40
O
Limit Line
100
1:40
3
28
42
75:40
*
110
1:40
8
28
50
88:40
*
120
1:40
12
29
57
100:40
*
130
1:40
16
36
57
111:40
*
140
1:40
19
42
62
125:40
*
150
1:40
21
49
66
138:40
*
160
1:40
24
55
70
151:40
*
170
1:40
29
57
75
163:40
*
180
1:40
36
57
79
174:40
*
190
1:40
43
56
84
185:40
*
200
1:20
1
47
60
86
196:40
*
210
1:20
2
52
64
89
209:40
*
220
1:20
3
56
68
92
221:40
*
230
1:20
7
56
73
96
234:40
*
240
1:20
11
56
77
99
245:40
*
250
1:20
14
57
80
104
257:40
*
260
1:20
18
57
84
109
270:40
*
270
1:20
21
59
85
116
283:40
*
280
1:20
24
63
85
123
297:40
*
290
1:20
27
66
85
130
310:40
*
300
1:20
29
70
88
133
322:40
*
310
1:20
31
73
91
137
334:40
*
320
1:20
33
76
94
141
346:40
*
* Repetitive dives are not authorized for dives below the Limit Line.
CHAPTER 17 — Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Diving 17-47
Table 17-14.
Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Table Using 0.7 ata Constant Partial
Pressure Oxygen in Nitrogen (Continued).
(DESCENT RATE 60 FPM-ASCENT RATE 30 FPM)
Decompression Stops (fsw)
Stop Times (min)
Depth
(fsw)
Bottom
Time
(min.)
Time to
First Stop
(min:sec)
Total
Ascent
Time
(min:sec)
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
Repet
Group
90
32
3:00
0
3:00
J
40
2:40
14
17:00
J
50
2:20
3
28
34:00
L
60
2:20
17
28
48:00
M
70
12:00
1
28
28
60:00
N
Limit Line
80
2:00
10
29
34
76:00
*
90
2:00
19
28
43
93:00
*
100
2:00
26
28
52
109:00
*
110
1:40
4
28
32
57
124:00
*
120
1:40
9
28
40
62
142:00
*
130
1:40
13
28
49
66
159:00
*
140
1:40
16
29
56
72
176:00
150
1:40
19
36
56
76
190:)0
*
160
1:40
22
42
57
81
205:00
*
170
1:40
24
49
57
88
221:00
*
180
1:40
26
55
61
91
236:00
*
190
1:40
32
56
67
94
252:00
*
100
27
3;20
0
3:20
I
30
3:00
6
9:20
J
35
3:00
17
20:20
J
40
3:00
28
31:20
K
45
2:40
10
28
41:20
L
50
2:40
19
28
50:20
L
55
2:40
27
29
59:20
M
60
2:20
7
28
28
66:20
N
65
2:20
14
28
28
73:20
O
Limit Line
70
2:20
20
28
31
82:20
*
75
2:20
26
28
36
93:20
*
80
2:00
3
28
29
41
104:20
*
90
2:00
13
28
28
52
124:20
*
100
2:00
21
28
33
61
146:20
*
110
2:00
27
29
43
65
167:20
*
110
24
3:40
0
3:40
I
25
3:20
3
6:40
I
30
3:20
17
20:40
J
35
3:00
2
28
33:40
K
40
3:00
14
28
45:40
K
45
3:00
25
28
56:40
L
Limit Line
50
2:40
7
28
28
66:40
*
55
2:40
16
28
29
76:40
*
60
2:40
25
28
28
84:40
*
* Repetitive dives are not authorized for dives below the Limit Line.
17-48 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 4
Table 17-14.
Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Table Using 0.7 ata Constant Partial
Pressure Oxygen in Nitrogen (Continued).
(DESCENT RATE 60 FPM-ASCENT RATE 30 FPM)
Decompression Stops (fsw)
Stop Times (min)
Depth
(fsw)
Bottom
Time
(min.)
Time to
First Stop
(min:sec)
Total
Ascent
Time
(min:sec)
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
Repet
Group
110
65
2:20
4
29
28
32
96:40
*
70
2:20
12
28
28
38
109:40
*
80
2:20
24
28
29
50
134:40
*
90
2:00
7
28
28
33
65
164:40
*
120
19
4:00
0
4:00
H
20
3:40
1
5:00
I
25
3:40
12
16:00
J
30
3:20
4
24
32:00
J
35
3:20
14
29
47:00
K
40
3:00
5
23
28
60:00
L
Limit Line
45
3:00
12
28
28
72:00
*
50
2:40
2
21
28
28
83:00
*
55
2:40
6
27
29
28
94:00
*
60
2:40
14
29
28
32
107:00
*
70
2:20
3
28
28
29
48
140:00
*
80
2:20
17
28
28
30
68
175:00
*
130
16
4:20
0
4:20
H
20
4:00
6
10:20
I
25
3:40
5
17
26:20
J
30
3:20
3
9
27
43:20
K
35
3:20
7
20
28
59:20
L
40
3:00
1
14
27
28
74:20
M
Limit Line
45
3:00
7
20
28
28
87:20
*
50
3:00
13
26
28
29
100:20
*
60
2:40
7
26
28
28
42
135:20
*
70
2:40
23
28
28
28
66
177:20
*
140
13
4:40
0
4:40
G
15
4:20
2
6:40
H
20
4:00
4
7
15:40
J
25
3:40
4
7
21
36:40
J
30
3:20
2
7
13
28
54:40
L
Limit Line
35
3:20
5
12
23
28
72:40
*
40
3:00
1
10
16
28
29
88:40
*
45
3:00
4
14
24
28
28
102:40
*
50
3:00
10
17
28
28
34
121:40
*
60
2:40
6
16
29
28
28
59
170:40
*
70
2:40
14
28
28
29
34
79
216:40
*
* Repetitive dives are not authorized for dives below the Limit Line.
CHAPTER 17 — Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Diving 17-49
Table 17-14.
Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Table Using 0.7 ata Constant Partial
Pressure Oxygen in Nitrogen (Continued).
(DESCENT RATE 60 FPM-ASCENT RATE 30 FPM)
Decompression Stops (fsw)
Stop Times (min)
Depth
(fsw)
Bottom
Time
(min.)
Time to
First Stop
(min:sec)
Total
Ascent
Time
(min:sec)
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
Repet
Group
150
11
5:00
0
5:00
F
15
4:20
2
4
11:00
H
20
4:00
2
7
10
24:00
J
25
3:40
3
6
8
24
46:00
K
30
3:20
1
7
8
17
29
67:00
L
Limit Line
35
3:20
4
8
14
26
28
85:00
*
40
3:20
7
15
19
28
28
102:00
*
45
3:00
2
13
14
28
28
34
124:00
*
50
3:00
8
14
21
28
28
48
152:00
*
60
2:40
4
14
22
28
29
30
75
207:00
*
70
2:40
11
22
29
28
28
50
91
264:00
*
Limit Line
160
9
5:20
0
5:20
*
10
5:00
1
6:20
*
15
4:20
1
4
5
15:20
*
20
4:00
1
6
7
13
32:20
*
25
3:40
1
7
7
10
26
56:20
*
30
3:40
7
7
10
20
29
78:20
*
40
3:20
7
11
14
23
28
35
123:20
*
50
3:00
5
14
14
26
28
29
63
184:20
*
Limit Line
170
8
5:40
0
5:40
*
10
5:20
3
8:40
*
15
4:20
1
3
3
7
19:40
*
20
4:00
1
4
7
7
17
41:40
*
25
4:00
7
7
6
13
28
66:40
*
30
3:40
6
7
7
13
24
28
90:40
*
40
3:20
6
8
14
14
27
28
44
146:40
*
50
3:00
3
13
14
17
28
28
35
75
218:40
*
* Repetitive dives are not authorized for dives below the Limit Line.
17-50 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 4
Table 17-15.
Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Table Using 0.7 ata Constant Partial Pressure
Oxygen in Helium.
(DESCENT RATE 60 FPM-ASCENT RATE 30 FPM)
Decompression Stops (fsw)
Stop Times (min)
Depth
(fsw)
Bottom
Time
(min.)
Time to
First Stop
(min:sec)
Total
Ascent
Time
(min:sec)
190
180
170
160
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
300
1:20
0
1:20
40
370
1:20
0
1:20
Limit Line
380
1:20
0
1:20
390
1:20
0
1:20
50
205
1:40
0
1:40
210
1:20
3
4:40
220
1:20
9
10:40
230
1:20
15
16:40
240
1:20
20
21:40
250
1:20
25
26:40
Limit Line
260
1:20
29
30:40
270
1:20
34
35:40
280
1:20
38
39:40
290
1:20
42
43:40
300
1:20
45
46:40
310
1:20
49
50:40
320
1:20
52
53:40
330
1:20
55
56:40
340
1:20
58
59:40
350
1:20
61
62:40
360
1:20
63
64:40
370
1:20
66
67:40
380
1:20
68
69:40
390
1:20
70
71:40
60
133
2:00
0
2:00
140
1:40
8
10:00
150
1:40
20
22:00
160
1:40
30
32:00
170
1:40
40
42:00
Limit Line
180
1:40
50
52:00
190
1:40
59
61:00
200
1:40
67
69:00
210
1:40
75
77:00
220
1:40
83
85:00
230
1:40
90
92:00
240
1:40
97
99:00
250
1:40
103
105:00
260
1:40
109
111:00
270
1:20
2
112
116:00
280
1:20
7
113
123:00
290
1:20
12
113
128:00
300
1:20
17
113
133:00
CHAPTER 17 — Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Diving 17-51
Table 17-15.
Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Table Using 0.7 ata Constant Partial Pressure
Oxygen in Helium (Continued).
(DESCENT RATE 60 FPM-ASCENT RATE 30 FPM)
Decompression Stops (fsw)
Stop Times (min)
Depth
(fsw)
Bottom
Time
(min.)
Time to
First Stop
(min:sec)
Total
Ascent
Time
(min:sec)
190
180
170
160
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
60
310
1:20
21
113
137:00
320
1:20
25
113
141:00
330
1:20
29
113
145:00
340
1:20
33
113
149:00
350
1:20
37
113
153:00
360
1:20
40
113
156:00
370
1:20
43
113
159:00
380
1:20
46
113
162:00
390
1:20
49
113
165:00
70
81
2:20
0
2:20
90
2:00
6
8:20
100
2:00
13
15:20
110
2:00
19
21:20
120
2:00
35
37:20
130
2:00
50
52:20
140
2:00
65
67:20
Limit Line
150
2:00
79
81:20
160
2:00
92
94:20
170
2:00
104
106:20
180
1:40
7
109
118:20
190
1:40
14
113
129:20
200
1:40
25
112
139:20
210
1:40
34
113
149:20
220
1:40
44
112
158:20
230
1:40
52
113
167:20
240
1:40
60
113
175:20
250
1:40
68
113
183:20
260
1:40
76
112
190:20
270
1:40
83
112
197:20
80
51
2:40
0
2:40
60
2:20
6
8:40
70
2:20
14
16:40
80
2:20
25
27:40
90
2:20
33
35:40
100
2:00
3
43
48:40
110
2:00
9
58
69:40
120
2:00
14
72
88:40
Limit Line
130
2:00
19
85
106:40
140
2:00
23
99
124:40
150
2:00
33
105
140:40
160
2:00
43
111
156:40
17-52 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 4
Table 17-15.
Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Table Using 0.7 ata Constant Partial Pressure
Oxygen in Helium (Continued).
(DESCENT RATE 60 FPM-ASCENT RATE 30 FPM)
Decompression Stops (fsw)
Stop Times (min)
Depth
(fsw)
Bottom
Time
(min.)
Time to
First Stop
(min:sec)
Total
Ascent
Time
(min:sec)
190
180
170
160
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
80
170
2:00
55
113
170:40
180
2:00
69
113
184:40
190
2:00
82
113
197:40
90
37
3:00
0
3:00
40
2:40
4
7:00
50
2:40
15
18:00
60
2:20
1
23
27:00
70
2:20
7
31
41:00
80
2:20
12
38
53:00
90
2:20
23
42
66:00
100
2:20
31
60
94:00
110
2:00
1
37
77
118:00
120
2:00
7
37
93
140:00
Limit Line
130
2:00
12
45
101
161:00
140
2:00
16
54
108
181:00
150
2:00
20
65
112
200:00
160
2:00
23
80
112
218:00
100
29
3:20
0
3:20
30
3:00
2
5:20
35
3:00
11
14:20
40
3:00
19
22:20
50
2:40
10
22
35:20
60
2:40
19
26
48:20
70
2:20
3
22
37
65:20
80
2:20
7
31
39
80:20
90
2:20
12
37
58
110:20
100
2:20
21
38
76
138:20
Limit Line
110
2:20
30
37
96
166:20
120
2:20
36
50
102
191:20
130
2:00
5
37
61
109
215:20
140
2:00
10
37
75
113
238:20
110
22
3:40
0
3:40
25
3:20
3
6:40
30
3:20
14
17:40
35
3:00
3
22
28:40
40
3:00
12
22
37:40
50
2:40
4
22
22
51:40
60
2:40
14
22
31
70:40
70
2:40
21
27
37
88:40
CHAPTER 17 — Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Diving 17-53
Table 17-15.
Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Table Using 0.7 ata Constant Partial Pressure
Oxygen in Helium (Continued).
(DESCENT RATE 60 FPM-ASCENT RATE 30 FPM)
Decompression Stops (fsw)
Stop Times (min)
Depth
(fsw)
Bottom
Time
(min.)
Time to
First Stop
(min:sec)
Total
Ascent
Time
(min:sec)
190
180
170
160
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
110
80
2:20
4
22
37
54
120:40
90
2:20
8
30
38
75
154:40
100
2:20
12
37
38
95
185:40
Limit Line
110
2:20
21
37
51
103
215:40
120
2:20
29
37
64
109
242:40
130
2:20
35
38
80
113
269:40
140
2:20
3
38
50
88
113
295:40
120
18
4:00
0
4:00
20
3:40
3
7:00
25
3:20
1
12
17:00
30
3:20
6
21
31:00
35
3:20
17
21
42:00
40
3:00
5
22
21
52:00
50
3:00
20
22
23
69:00
60
2:40
9
22
22
36
93:00
70
2:40
17
22
33
50
126:00
80
2:20
1
22
28
37
72
164:00
Limit Line
90
2:20
5
23
37
38
93
200:00
100
2:20
8
32
37
49
104
234:00
110
2:20
12
38
37
64
111
266:00
120
2:20
21
37
40
83
112
297:00
130
13
4:20
0
4:20
15
4:00
1
5:20
20
4:00
9
13:20
25
3:40
7
17
28:20
30
3:20
3
14
22
43:20
35
3:20
8
22
22
56:20
40
3:00
1
18
22
22
67:20
50
3:00
14
22
22
26
88:20
60
2:40
5
22
21
25
47
124:20
70
2:40
13
22
23
37
69
168:20
Limit Line
80
2:40
19
22
35
38
91
209:20
90
2:20
2
22
30
38
44
107
247:20
100
2:20
5
25
38
37
62
113
284:20
110
2:20
7
34
38
38
85
113
319:20
120
2:20
13
37
38
54
92
113
351:20
140
11
4:40
0
4:40
15
4:20
4
8:40
20
4:00
6
9
19:40
17-54 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 4
Table 17-15.
Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Table Using 0.7 ata Constant Partial Pressure
Oxygen in Helium (Continued).
(DESCENT RATE 60 FPM-ASCENT RATE 30 FPM)
Decompression Stops (fsw)
Stop Times (min)
Depth
(fsw)
Bottom
Time
(min.)
Time to
First Stop
(min:sec)
Total
Ascent
Time
(min:sec)
190
180
170
160
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
140
25
3:40
5
9
21
39:40
30
3:20
1
10
19
22
56:40
35
3:20
6
16
22
22
70:40
40
3:20
12
22
22
22
82:40
50
3:00
9
22
21
22
32
110:40
60
3:00
22
22
22
29
64
163:40
70
2:40
9
22
22
28
38
90
213:40
Limit Line
80
2:40
16
22
26
38
38
113
257:40
90
2:40
21
23
37
38
61
113
297:40
100
2:20
2
22
34
37
38
86
113
336:40
150
9
5:00
0
5:00
10
4:40
1
6:00
15
4:20
3
6
14:00
20
4:00
3
9
12
29:00
25
3:40
2
10
12
22
51:00
30
3:40
9
11
22
22
69:00
35
3:20
4
10
22
21
22
84:00
40
3:20
7
20
21
22
22
97:00
45
3:20
16
21
22
22
29
115:00
50
3:00
3
22
22
22
21
53
148:00
55
3:00
11
22
21
22
26
72
179:00
60
3:00
17
22
22
22
34
86
208:00
Limit Line
70
2:40
6
21
22
22
34
38
113
261:00
80
2:40
13
22
21
33
38
63
113
308:00
90
2:40
18
22
38
38
37
88
113
351:00
155
9
5:10
0
5:10
10
4:50
2
7:10
15
4:10
1
4
‘7
17:10
20
3:50
1
5
9
14
34:10
25
3:50
6
9
15
21
56:10
30
3:30
3
9
14
22
22
75:10
35
3:30
8
12
22
22
22
91:10
40
3:10
2
10
22
22
22
21
104:10
45
3:10
4
19
22
22
22
39
133:10
50
3:10
11
22
22
22
21
65
168:10
55
3:10
19
22
22
22
27
83
200:10
60
2:50
4
22
22
22
21
36
99
231:10
Limit Line
70
2:50
14
22
22
22
37
49
113
284:10
80
2:50
22
22
22
36
37
76
113
333:10
90
2:30
5
22
22
35
37
38
100
113
377:10
CHAPTER 17 — Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Diving 17-55
Table 17-15.
Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Table Using 0.7 ata Constant Partial Pressure
Oxygen in Helium (Continued).
(DESCENT RATE 60 FPM-ASCENT RATE 30 FPM)
Decompression Stops (fsw)
Stop Times (min)
Depth
(fsw)
Bottom
Time
(min.)
Time to
First Stop
(min:sec)
Total
Ascent
Time
(min:sec)
190
180
170
160
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
160
8
5:20
0
5:20
10
5:00
3
8:20
15
4:20
2
4
8
19:20
20
4:00
2
7
9
16
39:20
25
4:00
9
9
17
22
62:20
30
3:40
7
9
17
22
21
81:20
35
3:20
2
9
16
22
22
22
98:20
40
3:20
5
14
22
22
22
24
114:20
45
3:20
9
22
22
22
22
50
152:20
50
3:20
19
22
22
22
21
77
188:20
Limit Line
55
3:00
6
21
22
22
22
29
95
222:20
60
3:00
13
21
22
22
23
37
111
254:20
70
2:40
2
21
22
22
24
38
62
113
309:20
80
2:40
9
22
22
24
38
37
89
113
359:20
90
2:40
15
22
22
38
37
42
110
113
404:20
165
8
5:30
0
5:30
10
5:10
4
9:30
15
4:30
4
3
10
22:30
20
4:10
4
8
9
18
44:30
25
3:50
3
9
10
19
21
67:30
30
3:30
1
9
9
20
22
22
88:30
35
3:30
6
9
19
22
22
22
105:30
40
3:30
9
18
21
22
22
34
131:30
45
3:10
3
14
22
22
21
22
63
172:30
50
3:10
5
22
22
22
22
22
89
209:30
Limit Line
55
3:10
14
22
22
21
22
32
107
245:30
60
3:10
21
22
22
22
25
46
113
276:30
70
2:50
11
21
22
22
27
37
77
113
335:30
80
2:50
19
21
22
28
37
38
102
113
385:30
170
7
5:40
0
5:40
10
5:00
1
4
10:40
15
4:20
1
4
5
9
24:40
20
4:00
1
5
9
9
19
48:40
25
4:00
6
10
9
21
22
73:40
30
3:40
4
10
9
22
22
22
94:40
35
3:40
10
9
22
22
21
22
111:40
40
3:20
4
9
21
22
22
21
46
150:40
45
3:20
7
17
22
22
22
22
74
191:40
50
3:20
13
22
22
22
22
23
102
231:40
Limit Line
55
3:00
1
21
22
22
22
22
39
112
266:40
60
3:00
8
22
22
21
22
27
60
113
300:40
17-56 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 4
Table 17-15.
Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Table Using 0.7 ata Constant Partial Pressure
Oxygen in Helium (Continued).
(DESCENT RATE 60 FPM-ASCENT RATE 30 FPM)
Decompression Stops (fsw)
Stop Times (min)
Depth
(fsw)
Bottom
Time
(min.)
Time to
First Stop
(min:sec)
Total
Ascent
Time
(min:sec)
190
180
170
160
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
170
70
3:00
20
21
22
22
30
37
90
113
360:40
80
2:40
6
22
22
22
30
38
42
113
113
413:40
175
7
5:50
0
5:50
10
5:10
2
4
11:50
15
4:30
3
3
6
10
27:50
20
4:10
3
6
9
9
21
53:50
25
3:50
1
9
9
11
22
21
78:50
30
3:50
8
9
12
22
22
22
100:50
35
3:30
4
9
13
22
21
22
26
122:50
40
3:30
8
11
22
22
22
22
56
168:50
Limit Line
45
3:10
1
10
21
22
22
22
22
86
211:50
50
3:10
3
18
22
22
22
22
26
112
252:50
55
3:10
9
21
22
22
22
22
53
113
289:50
60
3:10
16
22
22
22
22
29
73
113
324:50
70
2:50
7
21
22
22
22
32
38
104
1
13
386:50
80
2:50
15
22
22
22
34
37
57
113
113
440:50
180
7
6:00
0
6:00
10
5:20
4
3
13:00
15
4:40
4
4
7
9
30:00
20
4:00
1
4
6
10
10
22
59:00
25
4:00
4
9
9
13
22
22
85:00
30
3:40
2
10
9
15
21
22
22
107:00
35
3:40
8
9
15
22
22
22
36
140:00
40
3:20
3
9
14
15
22
22
22
68
188:00
Limit Line
45
3:20
5
13
22
22
22
21
22
101
234:00
50
3:20
7
22
22
22
22
22
39
113
275:00
55
3:20
17
22
22
22
21
22
69
113
314:00
60
3:00
3
22
22
22
22
21
32
87
113
350:00
70
3:00
16
21
22
22
22
35
43
113
113
413:00
185
7
6:10
0
6:10
10
5:10
1
4
3
14:10
15
4:30
2
3
4
8
10
33:10
20
4:10
2
4
8
10
12
21
63:10
25
3:50
1
6
9
10
15
22
21
90:10
30
3:50
6
9
9
18
22
21
22
113:10
35
3:30
2
10
9
18
22
22
22
47
158:10
40
3:30
6
10
18
22
21
22
22
81
208:10
Limit Line
45
3:30
9
17
21
22
22
22
23
112
254:10
50
3:10
2
13
22
22
22
22
22
54
112
297:10
CHAPTER 17 — Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Diving 17-57
Table 17-15.
Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Table Using 0.7 ata Constant Partial Pressure
Oxygen in Helium (Continued).
(DESCENT RATE 60 FPM-ASCENT RATE 30 FPM)
Decompression Stops (fsw)
Stop Times (min)
Depth
(fsw)
Bottom
Time
(min.)
Time to
First Stop
(min:sec)
Total
Ascent
Time
(min:sec)
190
180
170
160
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
185
55
3:10
4
21
22
22
22
22
23
83
113
338:10
60
3:10
12
22
21
22
22
22
34
101
113
375:10
70
2:50
3
22
21
22
22
23
37
58
113
113
440:10
190
6
6:20
0
6:20
10
5:20
2
4
3
15:20
15
5:40
3
4
4
9
9
35:20
20
4:20
4
4
9
10
13
22
68:20
25
4:00
2
8
10
9
17
22
22
96:20
30
4:00
9
10
9
20
22
22
21
119:20
35
3:40
6
9
10
21
22
22
21
58
175:20
40
3:20
1
9
10
21
22
22
21
22
94
228:20
Limit Line
45
3:20
4
9
20
22
22
22
22
36
113
276:20
50
3:20
6
17
22
22
22
22
22
68
113
320:20
55
3:20
12
22
21
22
22
22
25
97
113
362:20
60
3:20
20
22
22
22
22
22
38
113
112
399:20
70
3:10
12
22
21
22
22
25
38
74
113
113
468:20
195
6
6:30
0
6:30
10
5:30
3
4
4
17:30
15
4:30
1
3
4
5
9
11
39:30
20
4:10
2
3
6
9
10
15
22
73:30
25
4:10
4
10
9
9
20
21
22
101:30
30
3:50
4
9
9
10
22
22
22
31
135:30
35
3:30
1
9
9
12
22
21
22
22
69
193:30
40
3:30
5
9
12
22
22
22
22
22
106
248:30
Limit Line
45
3:30
8
11
22
22
22
21
22
51
113
298:30
50
3:10
1
9
21
22
22
22
22
22
83
113
343:30
55
3:10
2
18
22
22
22
21
22
28
111
113
387:30
60
3:10
7
22
22
22
21
22
23
55
112
113
425:30
200
6
6:40
0
6:40
10
5:20
1
3
4
4
18:40
15
4:40
2
4
4
6
9
12
43:30
20
4:20
3
4
7
9
10
17
21
77:30
25
4:00
2
6
9
9
10
21
22
22
107:30
30
4:00
7
10
9
12
22
22
22
42
152:30
35
3:40
4
10
9
15
21
22
22
22
81
212:30
Limit Line
40
3:40
9
9
15
22
22
22
22
28
113
268:30
45
3:20
3
9
15
22
21
22
22
22
65
113
320:30
50
3:20
5
13
21
22
22
22
22
22
100
113
368:30
55
3:20
7
21
22
22
22
22
22
41
113
113
411:30
60
3:20
16
21
22
22
22
22
25
70
112
113
451:30
17-58 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 4
Table 17-15.
Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Table Using 0.7 ata Constant Partial Pressure
Oxygen in Helium (Continued).
(DESCENT RATE 60 FPM-ASCENT RATE 30 FPM)
Decompression Stops (fsw)
Stop Times (min)
Depth
(fsw)
Bottom
Time
(min.)
Time to
First Stop
(min:sec)
Total
Ascent
Time
(min:sec)
190
180
170
160
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
205
6
6:50
0
6:50
10
5:30
2
3
4
4
19:50
15
4:50
4
3
4
7
9
13
46:50
20
4:10
1
4
3
9
9
10
18
22
82:50
25
4:10
4
7
9
10
11
22
21
22
112:50
30
3:50
2
9
9
9
15
22
22
22
52
168:50
35
3:50
8
9
10
17
22
22
22
22
93
231:50
Limit Line
40
3:30
3
10
9
19
22
21
22
22
43
112
289:50
45
3:30
7
9
18
22
22
22
22
22
80
112
342:50
50
3:30
9
17
21
22
22
22
22
25
113
112
391:50
55
3:10
1
14
22
21
22
22
22
22
58
113
113
436:50
60
3:10
3
21
22
22
22
21
22
27
86
113
113
478:50
210
5
7:00
0
7:00
10
5:40
3
3
4
5
22:00
15
4:40
1
4
4
3
9
9
14
51:00
20
4:20
3
3
5
9
9
9
21
22
88:00
25
4:00
1
4
9
10
9
13
22
22
22
119:00
30
4:00
5
9
10
9
18
21
22
22
63
186:00
35
3:40
3
9
9
9
21
22
22
22
21
107
252:00
Limit Line
40
3:40
7
9
10
22
22
22
21
22
56
113
311:00
45
3:20
1
10
9
22
22
22
22
21
22
96
112
366:00
50
3:20
4
9
21
21
22
22
22
22
41
112
113
416:00
55
3:20
5
18
22
22
22
21
22
22
76
113
113
463:00
60
3:20
11
22
21
22
22
22
22
29
101
113
113
505:00
215
5
7:10
0
7:10
10
5:50
4
4
3
5
23:10
15
4:50
3
3
4
4
9
9
16
55:10
20
4:30
4
4
6
9
9
10
21
22
92:10
25
4:10
3
5
10
9
9
16
21
22
29
131:10
30
3:50
1
8
9
9
9
21
22
21
22
74
213:10
Limit Line
35
3:50
6
10
9
11
22
22
21
22
29
113
272:10
40
3:30
2
9
9
13
22
22
22
22
22
69
113
332:10
45
3:30
5
10
13
22
21
22
22
22
22
111
113
390:10
50
3:30
8
12
22
21
22
22
22
22
57
113
113
441:10
60
3:10
1
18
22
22
22
22
22
21
38
111
113
112
531:10
220
5
7:20
0
7:20
10
5:40
1
4
4
3
6
25:20
15
5:00
4
4
3
5
10
9
17
59:20
20
4:20
2
4
3
8
9
9
11
22
22
97:20
CHAPTER 17 — Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Diving 17-59
Table 17-15.
Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Table Using 0.7 ata Constant Partial Pressure
Oxygen in Helium (Continued).
(DESCENT RATE 60 FPM-ASCENT RATE 30 FPM)
Decompression Stops (fsw)
Stop Times (min)
Depth
(fsw)
Bottom
Time
(min.)
Time to
First Stop
(min:sec)
Total
Ascent
Time
(min:sec)
190
180
170
160
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
220
25
4:00
1
4
7
9
9
9
18
22
22
38
146:20
30
4:00
3
9
9
10
10
22
22
21
22
85
220:20
Limit Line
35
3:40
1
9
9
9
14
22
22
22
22
40
113
290:20
40
3:40
6
9
9
16
22
22
22
22
22
84
113
354:20
45
3:40
9
10
16
22
22
22
22
22
35
113
112
412:20
50
3:20
3
9
16
22
21
22
22
22
22
75
112
113
466:20
55
3:20
4
14
22
21
22
22
22
22
26
107
113
112
514:20
225
5
7:30
0
7:30
10
5:50
2
4
4
3
7
27:30
15
4:50
2
3
4
4
6
9
9
19
63:30
20
4:30
3
4
4
9
9
9
13
22
22
102:30
25
4:10
2
4
9
9
9
10
19
22
22
47
160:30
30
4:10
7
9
9
9
13
22
22
22
21
98
239:30
Limit Line
35
3:50
4
10
9
9
17
22
22
22
22
54
113
311:30
40
3:50
10
9
9
20
22
21
22
22
22
100
113
377:30
45
3:30
4
9
9
21
22
22
22
21
22
51
113
113
436:30
50
3:30
7
9
20
21
22
22
22
22
22
91
113
113
491:30
55
3:30
8
18
22
22
22
21
22
22
38
112
113
113
540:30
230
5
7:40
0
7:40
10
6:00
3
4
4
4
7
29:40
15
5:00
3
4
3
4
7
9
10
19
66:40
20
4:20
1
4
4
4
9
10
9
15
21
22
106:40
25
4:20
4
5
9
10
9
9
22
22
22
57
176:40
30
4:00
2
8
9
10
9
15
22
22
22
22
110
258:40
Limit Line
35
4:00
8
9
10
9
20
22
22
21
22
68
112
330:40
40
3:40
4
9
10
10
22
22
22
21
22
24
113
113
399:40
45
3:40
8
9
12
22
21
22
22
22
22
67
113
113
460:40
50
3:20
1
10
11
22
21
22
22
22
22
23
107
113
113
516:40
55
3:20
3
9
22
22
22
22
22
22
21
56
113
112
113
566:40
235
5
7:50
0
7:50
10
5:50
1
3
4
4
4
8
31:50
15
4:50
1
3
4
4
3
9
9
9
21
70:50
20
4:30
3
3
4
6
9
10
9
16
22
22
111:50
25
4:10
2
4
6
10
9
9
11
22
22
22
68
192:50
30
4:10
4
10
9
9
9
18
22
22
22
30
113
275:50
Limit Line
35
3:50
3
9
9
9
11
22
21
22
22
22
81
113
381:50
40
3:50
8
9
10
13
22
22
22
22
21
39
113
113
421:50
45
3:30
3
9
9
15
22
22
22
22
22
21
85
113
113
485:50
50
3:30
5
10
15
22
21
22
22
22
22
35
113
113
112
541:50
17-60 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 4
Table 17-15.
Closed-Circuit Mixed-Gas UBA Decompression Table Using 0.7 ata Constant Partial Pressure
Oxygen i</