CHAPTER 21 — Recompression Therapy 21-1
CHAPTER 21
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21-1
INTRODUCTION
21-1.1
Purpose.
This chapter covers recompression therapy. Recompression therapy is
indicated for treating omitted decompression, decompression sickness, and arterial
gas embolism.
21-1.2
Scope.
The procedures outlined in this chapter are to be performed only by
personnel properly trained to use them. Because these procedures cover symptoms
ranging from pain to life-threatening disorders, the degree of medical expertise
necessary to carry out treatment properly will vary. Certain procedures, such as
starting IV fluid lines and inserting chest tubes, require special training and should
not be attempted by untrained individuals. Treatment tables can be executed
without consulting a Diving Medical Officer (DMO), although a DMO should
always be contacted at the earliest possible opportunity. Four treatment tables
require special consideration:
Treatment Table 4 is a long, arduous table that requires constant evaluation of
the stricken diver.
Treatment Table 7 and Treatment Table 8 allow prolonged treatments for
severely ill patients based on the patient’s condition throughout the treatment.
Treatment Table 9 can only be prescribed by a Diving Medical Officer.
21-1.3
Diving Supervisor’s Responsibilities.
Experience has shown that symptoms of
severe decompression sickness or arterial gas embolism may occur following
seemingly normal dives. This fact, combined with the many operational scenarios
under which diving is conducted, means that treatment of severely ill individuals
will be required occasionally when qualified medical help is not immediately on
scene. Therefore, it is the Diving Supervisor’s responsibility to ensure that every
member of the diving team:
1.
Is thoroughly familiar with all recompression procedures.
2.
Knows the location of the nearest, certified recompression facility.
3.
Knows how to contact a qualified Diving Medical Officer if one is not at the
site.
21-1.4
Emergency Consultation.
Modern communications allow access to medical
expertise from even the most remote areas. Emergency consultation is available 24
hours a day with:
21-2 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 5
Primary:
Navy Experimental Diving Unit (NEDU)
321 Bullfinch Road
Panama City, FL 32407-7015
Secondary:
Navy Diving Salvage and Training Center (NDSTC)
350 South Craig Rd.
Panama City, FL 32407-7015
Telephone numbers are listed in Volume 1, Appendix C.
21-1.5
Applicability of Recompression.
The recompression procedures described in this
chapter are designed to handle most situations that will be encountered operation-
ally. They are applicable to both surface-supplied and scuba diving, whether on
air, nitrogen-oxygen, helium-oxygen, or 100 percent oxygen. For example, the
treatment of arterial gas embolism has little to do with the gas being breathed at
the time of the accident. Because all possible conditions cannot be anticipated,
additional medical expertise should be sought in all cases of decompression sick-
ness or arterial gas embolism that do not show substantial improvement on
standard treatment tables. Treatment of decompression sickness during saturation
dives is covered separately in Chapter 15 of this manual. Periodic evaluation of
U.S. Navy recompression treatment procedures has shown they are effective in
relieving symptoms over 90 percent of the time when used as published. Deviation
from these protocols shall be made only with the recommendation of a Diving
Medical Officer.
21-1.6
Recompression Treatment for Non-Diving Disorders.
In addition to individuals
suffering from diving disorders, U.S. Navy recompression chambers are also
permitted to conduct hyperbaric oxygen (HBO
2
) therapy to treat individuals
suffering from cyanide poisoning, carbon monoxide poisoning, gas gangrene,
smoke inhalation, necrotizing soft-tissue infections, or arterial gas embolism
arising from surgery, diagnostic procedures, or thoracic trauma. If the chamber is
to be used for treatment of non-diving related medical conditions other than those
listed above, authorization from MED-21 shall be obtained before treatment
begins (BUMEDINST 6320.38). Any treatment of a non-diving related medical
condition shall be done under the cognizance of a Diving Medical Officer.
The guidelines given in Table 21-1 for conducting HBO
2
therapy are taken from
the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society’s Hyperbaric Oxygen (HBO
2
)
Therapy Committee Report—1996: Approved Indications for Hyperbaric Oxygen
Therapy. For each condition, the guidelines prescribe the recommended Treatment
CHAPTER 21 — Recompression Therapy 21-3
Table, the frequency of treatment, and the minimum and maximum days of
treatment.
21-1.7
Primary Objectives.
Table 21-2 gives the basic rules that shall be followed for all
recompression treatments. The three primary objectives of recompression treat-
ment are to:
1.
Compress gas bubbles to a small volume, thus relieving local pressure and
restarting blood flow,
2.
Allow sufficient time for bubble resorption, and
Table 21-1. Guidelines for Conducting Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy.
Indication Treatment Table
Minimum
Treatments
Maximum
Treatments
Carbon Monoxide Poisonin
g
and Smoke Inhalation
Treatment Table 5
or Table 6
as recommended
by the DMO
5
Gas Gan
g
rene (Clostridial
Myonecrosis)
Treatment Table 5
TID × 1 day then
BID × 4–5 days
5 10
Crush Injury, Compartment
Syndrome, and other Acute
Traumatic Ischemia
Treatment Table 9
TID × 2 days
BID × 2 days
QD × 2 days
3 12
Enhancements of Healin
g
in
Selected Wounds
Treatment Table 9
QD or BID
10 60
Necrotizin
g
Soft-Tissue
Infections (subcutaneous
tissue, muscle, fascia)
Treatment Table 9
BID initially,
then QD
5 30
Osteomyelitis (refractory) Treatment Table 9
QD
20 60
Radiation Tissue Dama
g
e
(osteoradinecrosis)
Treatment Table 9
QD
20 60
Skin Grafts and Flaps
(compromised)
Treatment Table 9
BID initially,
then QD
6 40
Thermal Burns Treatment Table 9
TID × 1 day,
then BID
5 45
QD = 1 time in 24 hours BID = 2 times in 24 hours TID = 3 times in 24 hours
For further information, see
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy: A Committee Report, 1996 Revision
.
21-4 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 5
3.
Increase blood oxygen content and thus oxygen delivery to injured tissues.
21-1.8
Guidance on Recompressed Treatment.
Certain facets of recompression treat-
ment have been mentioned previously, but are so important that they cannot be
stressed too strongly.
Treat promptly and adequately.
The effectiveness of treatment decreases as the length of time between the
onset of symptoms and the treatment increases.
Table 21-2. Rules for Recompression Treatment.
ALWAYS:
1.
Follow the treatment tables accurately, unless modified by a Divin
g
Medical Officer with
concurrence of the Commandin
g
Officer.
2.
Have a qualified tender in chamber at all times durin
g
treatment.
3.
Maintain the normal descent and ascent rates as much as possible.
4.
Examine the patient thorou
g
hly at depth of relief or treatment depth.
5.
Treat an unconscious patient for arterial
g
as embolism or serious decompression sickness
unless the possibility of such a condition can be ruled out without question.
6.
Use air treatment tables only if oxy
g
en is unavailable.
7.
Be alert for warnin
g
si
g
ns of oxy
g
en toxicity if oxy
g
en is used.
8.
In the event of oxy
g
en convulsion, remove the oxy
g
en mask and keep the patient from self-
harm. Do not force mouth open durin
g
convulsion.
9.
Maintain oxy
g
en usa
g
e within the time and depth limitations prescribed by the treatment table.
10.
Check the patient's condition and vital si
g
ns periodically. Check frequently if the patient's
condition is chan
g
in
g
rapidly or the vital si
g
ns are unstable.
11.
Observe patient after treatment for recurrence of symptoms. Observe 2 hours for pain-only
symptoms, 6 hours for serious symptoms.
12.
Maintain accurate timekeepin
g
and recordin
g
.
13.
Maintain a well-stocked medical kit at hand.
NEVER:
1.
Permit any shortenin
g
or other alteration of the tables, except under the direction of a Divin
g
Medical Officer.
2.
Wait for a ba
g
resuscitator. Use mouth-to-mouth resuscitation immediately if breathin
g
ceases.
3.
Break rhythm durin
g
resuscitation.
4.
Permit the use of 100 percent oxy
g
en below 60 feet.
5.
Fail to treat doubtful cases.
6.
Allow personnel in the chamber to assume a cramped position that mi
g
ht interfere with
complete blood circulation.
CHAPTER 21 — Recompression Therapy 21-5
Do not ignore seemingly minor symptoms. They can quickly become major
symptoms.
Follow the selected treatment table unless changes are recommended by a
Diving Medical Officer.
If multiple symptoms occur, treat for the most serious condition.
21-1.9
In-Water or Air Recompression.
Recompression in a facility equipped for oxygen
breathing is preferred. However, the procedures covered here also address situa-
tions where either no chamber is available or where only air is available at the
recompression facility. In-water or air recompression treatments are used only
when the delay in transporting the patient to a recompression facility having
oxygen would cause greater harm.
21-2
PRESCRIBING AND MODIFYING TREATMENTS
Not all Medical Officers are DMOs. The DMO shall be a graduate of the Diving
Medical Officer course taught at the Naval Diving and Salvage Training Center
(NDSTC). DMOs shall have subspecialty codes of 16U0 or 16U1 (Undersea
Medical Officer). Saturation Diving Medical Officers have an Additional Qualifi-
cation Designator (AQD) of 6UD and Submarine Medical Officers an AQD of
6UM. Medical Officers who only complete the short diving medicine course at
NDSTC do not receive DMO subspecialty codes, but are considered to have the
same privileges as DMOs when treating diving accidents. Only those physicians
cited in this paragraph may modify the treatment protocols as warranted by the
patients condition with concurrence of the Commanding Officer. Other physi-
cians may assist and advise treatment and care of diving casualties but may not
modify recompression procedures.
21-3
OMITTED DECOMPRESSION
Certain emergencies, such as uncontrolled ascents, an exhausted air supply, or
bodily injury, may interrupt or prevent required decompression. If the diver shows
symptoms of decompression sickness or arterial gas embolism, immediate treat-
ment using the appropriate oxygen or air recompression treatment table is
essential. Even if the diver shows no symptoms, omitted decompression must be
addressed in some manner to avert later difficulty. Table 21-3 summarizes
management of asymptomatic Omitted Decompression.
21-3.1
Planned and Unplanned Omitted Decompression.
Omitted decompression may
or may not be planned. Planned omitted decompression results when a condition
develops at depth that will require the diver to surface before completing all of the
decompression stops and when there is time to consider all available options,
ready the recompression chamber, and alert all personnel as to the planned evolu-
tion. Equipment malfunctions, diver injury, or sudden severe storms are examples
of these situations. In unplanned omitted decompression, the diver suddenly
appears at the surface without warning or misses decompression for some unfore-
21-6 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 5
seen reason. In either instance, the Surface Decompression Tables may be used to
remove the diver from the water, if the surfacing time occurs such that water stops
are either not required or have already been completed. When the conditions that
permit using the Surface Decompression Tables are not fulfilled, the diver’s
decompression will be compromised. Special care shall be taken to detect signs of
decompression sickness. The diver must be returned to pressure as soon as
possible.
21-3.2
Treating Omitted Decompression with Symptoms.
If the diver develops symp-
toms of decompression sickness during the surface interval, treat in accordance
with the procedures in paragraph 21-4 (no chamber available) or paragraph 21-5
(chamber available). If the diver has no symptoms of decompression sickness or
Table 21-3. Management of Asymptomatic Omitted Decompression.
Depth at Which
Omission
Began
Decompression
Status
Eligible for
Sur-D?
Surface
Interval
Action
Chamber
Available
No Chamber
Available
20 fsw or
shallower
No Decompression N/A N/A Observe on surface for 1 hour.
Decompression
Stops Required
Yes Less than 5
minutes
Use Surface
Decompression
Tables.
Perform Chamber
stops in water. (Note 1)
No Less than 1
minute
Return to depth of stop. Increase stop time 1
minute. Resume decompression.
No. Greater than 1
minute.
Return to depth of stop. Multiply 20- and 10-foot
stop times by 1.5.
OR:
Treatment Table 5 (1A) for surface interval
less than 5 minutes.
OR:
Treatment Table 6 (2A) for surface interval
g
reater than 5 minutes.
Deeper than
20 fsw
No-Decompression N/A N/A Observe on surface for 1 hour.
Decompression
Stops Required
Yes Less than 5
minutes.
Use Surface
Decompression Tables
Perform chamber
stops in water (Note 1)
Decompression
Stops Required
(Less than 30
minutes missed)
No
No
Less than 5
minutes.
Greater than 5
minutes.
Treatment Table 5 (1A)
(Note 2)
Treatment Table 6 (2A)
(Note 2)
Descend to depth of
first stop. Follow the
schedule to 30 fsw.
Multiply 30, 20, and 10
fsw stops by 1.5.
Decompression
Stops Required
(Greater than 30
minutes)
No Any Treatment Table 6 (2A)
(Note 2)
Notes:
1. Sur-D Air only.
2. If a diver missed a stop deeper than 60 feet and oxy
g
en is available, first compress to the depth of the first missed stop.
Double this stop, then decompress to 60 feet usin
g
the appropriate decompression schedule doublin
g
all stop times.
Decompress from 60 feet on Treatment Table 5 or 6 as appropriate. If oxy
g
en is unavailable, treat on a full Treatment Table
1A or 2A as appropriate.
3. Usin
g
a recompression chamber is stron
g
ly preferred over in-water recompression for returnin
g
a diver to pressure.
CHAPTER 21 — Recompression Therapy 21-7
arterial gas embolism, make up the omitted decompression as described in this
section.
21-3.3
Treating Omitted Decompression in Specific Operational Environments.
Refer
to paragraph 17-10.6 for procedures for dealing with omitted decompression
during MK 16 diving operations. Refer to paragraph 14-4.10 for procedures for
dealing with omitted decompression during surface-supplied helium-oxygen
diving operations.
21-3.4
Ascent from 20 Feet or Shallower (Shallow Surfacing) with Decompression
Stops Required.
If the diver surfaced from 20 feet or shallower, feels well, and
can be returned to stop depth within 1 minute, the diver may complete normal
decompression stops. The decompression stop from which ascent occurred is
lengthened by 1 minute. If the diver cannot be returned to the depth of the stop
within 1 minute and the diver remains asymptomatic, return the diver to the stop
from which the diver ascended. Multiply each decompression stop time missed by
1.5. Alternatively, if the surface interval is less than 5 minutes, the diver may be
placed in a recompression chamber and treated on a Treatment Table 5 (or 1A if
no oxygen is available). If the surface interval is greater than 5 minutes, the diver
may be placed in a recompression chamber and treated on Treatment Table 6 (or
2A if no oxygen is available). The diver should be observed for 1 hour after
surfacing and/or completing treatment.
21-3.5
Ascent from 20 Feet or Shallower with No Decompression Stops Required.
No
recompression is required if the diver surfaces from 20 feet or shallower but was
within no-decompression limits. The diver should be observed on the surface for 1
hour.
21-3.6
Ascent from Deeper than 20 Feet (Uncontrolled Ascent).
Any unexpected sur-
facing of the diver from depths in excess of 20 feet is considered an uncontrolled
ascent. If the diver is within no-decompression limits and asymptomatic, he
should be observed for at least 1 hour on the surface. Recompression is not neces-
sary unless symptoms develop.
21-3.6.1
Asymptomatic Uncontrolled Ascent.
Asymptomatic divers who experience an
uncontrolled ascent and who have missed decompression stops are treated by
recompression based on the amount of decompression missed as follows:
Oxygen Available
. Immediately compress the diver to 60 feet in the recom-
pression chamber. If less than 30 minutes of decompression (total ascent time
from the tables) were missed, decompress from 60 feet on Treatment Table 5.
If more than 30 minutes of decompression were missed, decompress from 60
feet on Treatment Table 6.
Oxygen Not Available
. Compress the diver to 100 feet in the recompression
chamber and treat on Table 1A if less than 30 minutes of decompression were
missed; compress to 165 feet and treat on Table 2A if more than 30 minutes
were missed.
21-8 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 5
21-3.6.2
Development of Symptoms.
As long as the diver shows no ill effects, decompress
in accordance with the treatment table. Consider any decompression sickness that
develops during or after this procedure to be a recurrence. Try to keep all surface
intervals as short as possible (5 minutes or less). If an asymptomatic diver who has
an uncontrolled ascent from a decompression dive has more than a 5-minute
surface interval, recompress to 60 feet on Treatment Table 6 or treat on Table 2A,
even if the missed decompression time was less than 30 minutes.
21-3.6.3
In-Water Procedure.
When no recompression facility is available, use the fol-
lowing in-water procedure to make up omitted decompression in asymptomatic
divers for ascents from depths below 20 feet.
Recompress the diver in the water as soon as possible (preferably less than a 5-
minute surface interval). Keep the diver at rest, provide a standby diver, and main-
tain good communication and depth control. Use the decompression schedule
appropriate for the divers depth and bottom time. Follow the procedure below with
1 minute between stops:
1.
Return the diver to the depth of the first stop.
2.
Follow the schedule for stops 40-fsw and deeper.
3.
Multiply the 30-, 20-, and 10-fsw stops by 1.5.
21-3.6.4
Symptomatic Uncontrolled Ascent.
If a diver has had an uncontrolled ascent and
has any symptoms, he should be compressed immediately in a recompression
chamber to 60 fsw. Conduct a rapid assessment of the patient, and treat accord-
ingly. Treatment Table 5 is not an appropriate treatment for symptomatic
uncontrolled ascent. If the diver surfaced from 60 fsw or shallower, compress to
60 fsw and begin Treatment Table 6. If the diver surfaced from a greater depth,
compress to 60 fsw or depth where the symptoms are significantly improved, not
to exceed 165 fsw, and begin Treatment Table 6A. Symptoms developing during
the surface interval or during a period of observation on no-decompression dives
are treated as described in paragraph 21-5 (reference Table 21-3). Consultation
with a Diving Medical Officer should be made as soon as possible. For uncon-
trolled ascent deeper than 165 feet, the diving supervisor may elect to use
Treatment Table 8 at the depth of relief, not to exceed 225 fsw.
Treatment of symptomatic divers who have surfaced unexpectedly is difficult
when no recompression chamber is on site. Immediate transportation to a recom-
pression facility is indicated; if this is impossible, the guidelines in paragraph 21-4
may be useful.
21-4
RECOMPRESSION TREATMENTS WHEN NO RECOMPRESSION CHAMBER IS
AVAILABLE
The Diving Supervisor has two alternatives for recompression treatments when
the diving facility is not equipped with a recompression chamber. If recompres-
sion of the patient is not immediately necessary, the diver may be transported to
the nearest certified recompression chamber for treatment.
CHAPTER 21 — Recompression Therapy 21-9
21-4.1
Transporting the Patient.
In certain instances, some delay may be unavoidable
while the patient is transported to a recompression chamber. While moving the
patient to a recompression chamber, the patient should be kept lying horizontally.
Do not put the patient head-down. Additionally, the patient should be kept warm
and monitored constantly for signs of blocked airway, cessation of breathing,
cardiac arrest, or shock. Always keep in mind that a number of conditions may
exist at the same time. For example, the victim may be suffering from both decom-
pression sickness and severe internal injuries.
21-4.1.1
Medical Treatment During Transport.
Always have the patient breathe 100
percent oxygen during transport, if available. If symptoms of decompression sick-
ness or arterial gas embolism are relieved or improve after breathing 100 percent
oxygen, the patient should still be treated as if the original symptom(s) were still
present. Always ensure the patient is adequately hydrated. Give fluids by mouth if
the patient is able to take them. Otherwise, intravenous fluids should be started
before transport (paragraph 21-5.5.7). If the patient must be transported, initial
arrangements should have been made well in advance of the actual diving opera-
tions. These arrangements, which would include an alert notification to the
recompression chamber and determination of the most effective means of trans-
portation, should be posted on the Job Site Emergency Assistant Checklist for
instant referral.
21-4.1.2
Transport by Unpressurized Aircraft.
If the patient is moved by helicopter or
other unpressurized aircraft, the aircraft should be flown as low as safely possible,
preferably less than 1,000 feet. Any unnecessary altitude means an additional
reduction in external pressure and possible additional symptom severity or
complications. If available, always use aircraft that can be pressurized to one
atmosphere.
21-4.1.3
Communications with Chamber.
Call ahead to ensure that the chamber will be
ready and that qualified medical personnel will be standing by. If two-way
communications can be established, consult with the doctor as the patient is being
transported.
21-4.2
In-Water Recompression.
Recompression in the water should be considered an
option of last resort, to be used only when no recompression facility is on site and
there is no prospect of reaching a recompression facility within 12 hours. In an
emergency, an uncertified chamber may be used if, in the opinion of the Diving
Supervisor, it is safe to operate. In divers with severe Type II symptoms, or symp-
toms of arterial gas embolism (e.g., unconsciousness, paralysis, vertigo,
respiratory distress, shock, etc.), the risk of increased harm to the diver from in-
water recompression probably outweighs any anticipated benefit. Generally, these
individuals should not be recompressed in the water, but should be kept at the
surface on 100 percent oxygen, if available, and evacuated to a recompression
facility regardless of the delay. To avoid hypothermia, it is important to consider
water temperature when performing in-water recompression.
21-4.2.1
Surface Oxygen Treatment.
For less life-threatening cases, have the stricken
diver begin breathing 100 percent oxygen immediately if it is available on site.
21-10 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 5
Continue breathing oxygen at the surface for 30 minutes before deciding to recom-
press in the water. If symptoms stabilize, improve, or relief on 100 percent oxygen
is noted, do not attempt in-water recompression unless symptoms reappear with
their original intensity or worsen. Continue breathing 100 percent oxygen as long
as supplies last, up to a maximum time of 6 hours. If surface oxygen proves inef-
fective after 30 minutes, begin in-water recompression.
21-4.2.2
In-Water Recompression Using Air.
In-water recompression using air is always
less preferable than using oxygen.
1.
Follow Treatment Table 1A as closely as possible.
a.
Use either a full face mask or, preferably, a surface-supplied UBA.
Never recompress a diver in the water using a scuba with a mouthpiece
unless it is the only breathing source available.
b.
Maintain constant communication.
2.
Keep at least one diver with the patient at all times. Plan carefully for shifting
UBAs or cylinders. Have an ample number of tenders topside.
3.
If the depth is inadequate for full treatment according to Treatment Table 1A:
a.
Recompress the patient to the maximum available depth.
b.
Remain at maximum depth for 30 minutes.
c.
Decompress according to Treatment Table 1A. Do not use stops shorter
than those of Treatment Table 1A.
21-4.2.3
In-Water Recompression Using Oxygen.
If a 100 percent oxygen rebreather is
available and individuals at the dive site are trained in its use, the following in-
water recompression procedure may be used instead of Table 1A:
1.
Put the stricken diver on the UBA and have the diver purge the apparatus at
least three times with oxygen.
2.
Descend to a depth of 30 feet with a standby diver.
3.
Remain at 30 feet, at rest, for 60 minutes for Type I symptoms and 90 minutes
for Type II symptoms. Ascend to 20 feet even if symptoms are still present.
4.
Decompress to the surface by taking 60-minute stops at 20 feet and 10 feet.
5.
After surfacing, continue breathing 100 percent oxygen for an additional 3
hours.
6.
If symptoms persist or recur on the surface, arrange for transport to a recom-
pression facility regardless of the delay.
CHAPTER 21 — Recompression Therapy 21-11
21-4.2.4
Symptoms After In-Water Recompression.
The occurrence of Type II symptoms
after in-water recompression is an ominous sign and could progress to severe,
debilitating decompression sickness. It should be considered life-threatening.
Operational considerations and remoteness of the dive site will dictate the speed
with which the diver can be evacuated to a recompression facility.
21-4.3
Symptoms During Decompression (No Chamber Available).
Development of
decompression sickness in the water is uncommon when U.S. Navy decompres-
sion procedures are followed, but when it does occur it is likely to be at shallow
stops. The symptoms are usually Type I and respond quickly to minimal recom-
pression. Follow the flowchart in Figure 21-3 for proper management. Only
recompress an additional 10 feet if no significant improvement was noted after the
first 10-fsw recompression. Remain at treatment depth 30 minutes in addition to
any required decompression stop time. If no decompression time is required at the
treatment depth, remain there for 30 minutes. Shift diver to 100 percent oxygen at
depths of 30 feet and shallower if possible. If symptoms persist after surfacing,
have the diver breathe 100 percent oxygen while arranging evacuation to a recom-
pression facility. Do not conduct in-water recompression for residual symptoms
after surfacing. Once a recompression facility is reached, any symptoms are
treated as a recurrence of Type II symptoms.
21-5
RECOMPRESSION TREATMENTS WHEN CHAMBER IS AVAILABLE
Oxygen Treatment Tables are more effective and, therefore, preferable over Air
Treatment Tables. Treatment Table 4 can be used with or without oxygen but
should always be used with oxygen if it is available.
21-5.1
Symptoms During Decompression and Surface Decompression (Recompres-
sion Chamber Available).
If symptoms of decompression sickness occur in the
water during decompression, follow the flowchart in Figure 21-3. After
completing recompression treatment, observe the diver for at least 6 hours. If any
symptoms recur, treat as a recurrence of Type II symptoms. As an option, the on-
site Diving Supervisor may elect not to recompress the diver 10 feet in the water,
but to remove the diver from the water when decompression risks are acceptable
and treat him in the chamber. When this is done, the surface interval should be 5
minutes or less, with the diver always treated as having Type II symptoms.
21-5.1.1
Treatment During Surface-Supplied HEO
2
and MK 16 Operations.
Treatment of
decompression sickness arising in the water in specific operational environments
is presented in Volume 3 for surface-supplied helium-oxygen dives and Volume 4
for MK 16 diving operations.
21-5.1.2
Treatment of Symptoms During Sur-D Surface Interval.
If surface decompres-
sion procedures are used, symptoms of decompression sickness may occur during
the surface interval. Because neurological symptoms cannot be ruled out during
this short period, the symptomatic diver is treated as having Type II symptoms,
even if the only complaint is pain.
21-12 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 5
21-5.1.3
Treating for Exceeded Sur-D Surface Interval.
If the prescribed surface interval
is exceeded but the diver remains asymptomatic, the diver is treated with Treat-
ment Table 5, or Treatment Table 1A if no oxygen is available. If the diver
becomes symptomatic, the diver is treated as if Type II symptoms were present.
Any symptoms occurring during the chamber stops of Surface Decompression
Tables are treated as recurrences in accordance with Figure 21-6.
21-5.2
Recompression Treatments When Oxygen Is Not Available.
If no oxygen is
available, select the appropriate Air Treatment Table in accordance with Figure
21-10, Figure 21-14, Figure 21-15, and Figure 21-16.
Use Table 1A if pain is relieved at a depth less than 66 feet. If pain is relieved at a
depth greater than 66 feet, use Table 2A. Table 3 is used for treatment of serious
symptoms where oxygen cannot be used. Use Table 3 if symptoms are relieved
within 30 minutes at 165 feet. If symptoms are not relieved in less than 30 minutes
at 165 feet, use Table 4.
21-5.2.1
Descent/Ascent Rates for Air Treatment Tables.
The Air Treatment Tables (1A,
2A, 3, and 4 using air) are used when no oxygen is available. They are not as
effective as the Oxygen Treatment Tables. The descent rate is 20 feet per minute;
the ascent rate is not to exceed 1 foot per minute.
21-5.3
Treatment at Altitude.
Before starting a recompression therapy, zero the chamber
depth gauges to adjust for altitude. Then use the depths as specified in the treat-
ment table. There is no need to “Cross Correct” the treatment table depths.
21-5.4
Recompression Treatments When Oxygen Is Available.
Use Oxygen Treat-
ment Tables 5, 6, 6A, 4, or 7, according to the flowcharts in Figure 21-4, Figure
21-5, and Figure 21-6. The descent rate is 20 feet per minute. Upon reaching treat-
ment depth not to exceed 60 fsw, place the patient on oxygen. For depth deeper
than 60 fsw, use treatment gas if available. Additional guidelines for each treat-
ment table are given below.
21-5.4.1
Treatment Table 5.
Treatment Table 5 may be used for the following:
Type I (except for cutis-marmorata) symptoms when a complete neurological
examination has revealed no abnormality
Asymptomatic omitted decompression of shallow surfacing (20 fsw or less)
Asymptomatic omitted decompression of rapid ascent (from deeper than 20
fsw) if the missed decompression is less than 30 minutes
Asymptomatic divers who have exceeded surface interval limits following a
Sur-D dive
Treatment of resolved symptoms following in-water recompression
Follow-up treatments for residual symptoms
CHAPTER 21 — Recompression Therapy 21-13
Carbon monoxide poisoning
Gas gangrene
21-5.4.1.1
Performance of Neurological Exam at 60 fsw.
After arrival at 60 fsw a neurolog-
ical exam shall be performed (see Appendix 5A) to ensure that no overt
neurological symptoms (e.g., weakness, numbness, incoordination) are present. If
any abnormalities are found, the stricken diver should be treated using Treatment
Table 6.
21-5.4.1.2
Extending Oxygen Breathing Periods on Treatment Table 5.
Treatment Table 5
may be extended by two oxygen breathing periods at 30 fsw. Air breaks are not
required prior to an extension, between extensions, or prior to surfacing. In other
words, the Diving Supervisor may have the patient breathe oxygen continuously
for 60 minutes at 30 fsw and travel to the surface while breathing oxygen. If the
Diving Supervisor elects to extend this treatment table, the tender does not require
additional oxygen breathing than currently prescribed.
21-5.4.1.3
When Use of Treatment Table 6 is Mandatory.
Treatment Table 6 is mandatory
if:
Type I pain is severe and immediate recompression must be instituted before a
neurological examination can be performed, or
A complete neurological examination cannot be performed, or
Any neurological symptom is present.
These rules apply no matter how rapidly or completely the symptoms resolve once
recompression begins.
21-5.4.1.4
Complete Relief after 10 Minutes.
If complete relief of Type I symptoms is not
obtained within 10 minutes at 60 feet, Table 6 is required.
21-5.4.1.5
Musculoskeletal Pain Due to Orthopedic Injury.
Symptoms of musculoskeletal
pain that have shown absolutely no change after the second oxygen breathing
period at 60 feet may be due to orthopedic injury rather than decompression sick-
ness. If, after reviewing the patient’s history, the Diving Medical Officer feels that
the pain can be related to specific orthopedic trauma or injury, Treatment Table 5
may be completed. If no Diving Medical Officer is on site, Treatment Table 6
shall be used.
NOTE Once recompression to 60 feet is done, Treatment Table 5 shall be used
even if it was decided symptoms were probably not decompression
sickness. Direct ascent to the surface is done only in emer
g
encies.
21-5.4.2
Treatment Table 6.
Treatment Table 6 is used for the following:
Type I symptoms where relief is not complete within 10 minutes at 60 feet or
where a neurological exam is not complete
21-14 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 5
Type II symptoms
Cutis marmorata
Severe carbon monoxide poisoning, cyanide poisoning, or smoke inhalation
Arterial gas embolism
Symptomatic uncontrolled ascent
Asymptomatic divers with omitted decompression greater than 30 minutes
Treatment of unresolved symptoms following in-water treatment
Recurrence of symptoms shallower than 60 fsw
21-5.4.2.1
Treating Arterial Gas Embolism.
Arterial gas embolism is treated by initial
compression to 60 fsw. If symptoms are improved within the first oxygen
breathing period, then treatment is continued using Treatment Table 6. Treatment
Table 6 may be extended for two oxygen breathing periods at 60 fsw (20 minutes
on oxygen, then 5 minutes on air, then 20 minutes on oxygen) and two oxygen
breathing periods at 30 fsw (15 minutes on air, then 60 minutes on oxygen, then 15
minutes on air, then 60 minutes on oxygen). If there has been more than one exten-
stion, the tenders’ breathing period is extended 60 minutes at 30 feet.
21-5.4.3
Treatment Table 6A.
Arterial gas embolism or severe decompression symptoms
are treated by initial compression to 60 fsw. If symptoms improve, complete
Treatment Table 6. If symptoms are unchanged or worsen, assess the patient upon
descent and compress to depth of relief (significant improvement), not to exceed
165 fsw. Once at the depth of relief, begin treatment gas (N
2
O
2
, HeO
2
) if avail-
able. Stay there for 30 minutes. A breathing period of 25 minutes on treatment gas,
interrupted by 5 minutes of air, is recommended at depth to simplify time keeping.
The patient may remain on treatment gas during ascent from treatment depth to 60
fsw since the PO
2
will continually decrease during ascent. Decompress to 60 fsw
at a travel rate not to exceed 3 ft./min. Upon arrival at 60 fsw, complete Treatment
Table 6. Consult with a Diving Medical Officer at the earliest opportunity. The
Diving Medical Officer may recommend a Treatment Table 4. Treatment Table
6A may be extended for two oxygen breathing periods at 60 fsw and two oxygen
breathing periods at 30 fsw. If deterioration is noted during ascent to 60 feet, treat
as a recurrence of symptoms (Figure 21-6).
21-5.4.4
Treatment Table 4.
If a shift from Treatment Table 6A to Treatment Table 4 is
contemplated, a Diving Medical Officer shall be consulted before the shift is
made. Treatment Table 4 is used when it is determined that the patient would
receive additional benefit at depth of significant relief, not to exceed 165 fsw. The
time at depth shall be between 30 to 120 minutes, based on the patient’s response.
21-5.4.4.1
Recurrence of Symptoms.
If deterioration is noted during ascent to 60 feet, treat
as a recurrence of symptoms (Figure 21-6).
CHAPTER 21 — Recompression Therapy 21-15
21-5.4.4.2
Oxygen Breathing Periods.
If oxygen is available, the patient should begin
oxygen breathing periods immediately upon arrival at the 60-foot stop. Breathing
periods of 25 minutes on oxygen, interrupted by 5 minutes of air, are recom-
mended because each cycle lasts 30 minutes. This simplifies timekeeping.
Immediately upon arrival at 60 feet, a minimum of four oxygen breathing periods
(for a total time of 2 hours) should be administered. After that, oxygen breathing
should be administered to suit the patient’s individual needs and operational
conditions (paragraph 21-5.5.6). Both the patient and tender must breathe oxygen
for at least 4 hours (eight 25-minute oxygen, 5-minute air periods), beginning no
later than 2 hours before ascent from 30 feet is begun. These oxygen-breathing
periods may be divided up as convenient, but at least 2 hours’ worth of oxygen
breathing periods should be completed at 30 feet.
21-5.4.5
Treatment Table 7.
Treatment Table 7 is considered an heroic measure for
treating non-responding severe gas embolism or life-threatening decompression
sickness. Committing a patient to a Treatment Table 7 involves isolating the
patient and having to minister to his medical needs in the recompression chamber
for 48 hours or longer. Experienced diving medical personnel shall be on scene.
21-5.4.5.1
Considerations.
A Diving Medical Officer shall be consulted before shifting to a
Treatment Table 7 and careful consideration shall be given to life support capa-
bility (paragraph 21-5.6). In addition, it must be realized that the recompression
facility will be committed for 48 hours or more.
21-5.4.5.2
Indications.
Treatment Table 7 is an extension at 60 feet of Treatment Tables 6,
6A, or 4 (or any other nonstandard treatment table). This means that considerable
treatment has already been administered. Treatment Table 7 is not designed to
treat all residual symptoms that do not improve at 60 feet and should never be used
to treat residual pain. Treatment Table 7 should be used only when loss of life may
result if the currently prescribed decompression from 60 feet is undertaken.
21-5.4.5.3
Consultation with NEDU or NDSTC.
Because it is difficult to judge whether a
particular patient’s condition warrants Treatment Table 7, additional consultation
from either NEDU or NDSTC must be obtained. Telephone numbers are listed in
Appendix 1C.
21-5.4.5.4
Time at Depth.
When using Treatment Table 7, a minimum of 12 hours should be
spent at 60 feet, including time spent at 60 feet from Treatment Table 4, 6, or 6A.
Severe Type II decompression sickness and/or arterial gas embolism cases may
continue to deteriorate significantly over the first several hours. This should not be
cause for premature changes in depth. Do not begin decompression from 60 feet
for at least 12 hours. At completion of the 12-hour stay, the decision must be made
whether to decompress or spend additional time at 60 feet. If no improvement was
noted during the first 12 hours, benefit from additional time at 60 feet is unlikely
and decompression should be started. If the patient is improving but significant
residual symptoms remain (e.g., limb paralysis, abnormal or absent respiration),
additional time at 60 feet may be warranted. While the actual time that can be
spent at 60 feet is unlimited, the actual additional amount of time beyond 12 hours
that should be spent can only be determined by a Diving Medical Officer (in
21-16 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 5
consultation with on-site supervisory personnel), based on the patient’s response
to therapy and operational factors. When the patient has progressed to the point of
consciousness, can breathe independently, and can move all extremities, decom-
pression can be started and maintained as long as improvement continues. Solid
evidence of continued benefit should be established for stays longer than 18 hours
at 60 feet. Regardless of the duration at the recompression below 60 feet, at least
12 hours must be spent at 60 feet and then Table 7 followed to the surface. Addi-
tional recompression below 60 feet in these cases should not be undertaken unless
adequate life support capability is available.
21-5.4.5.5
Decompression.
When using Treatment Table 7, tenders breathe chamber atmo-
sphere. Chamber oxygen should be kept above 19 percent (paragraph 21-5.6.3)
and carbon dioxide below 1.5 percent surface equivalent (sev) (11.4 mmHg) (para-
graph 21-5.6.4). Decompression on Treatment Table 7 is begun with an upward
excursion at time zero from 60 to 58 feet. Subsequent 2-foot upward excursions
are made at time intervals appropriate to the rate of decompression:
21-5.4.5.6
Preventing Inadvertent Early Surfacing.
Upon arrival at 4 feet, decompression
should be stopped for 4 hours. At the end of 4 hours at 4 feet, decompress to the
surface at 1 foot per minute. This procedure prevents inadvertent early surfacing.
21-5.4.5.7
Time Intervals.
The travel time between subsequent steps is considered as part of
the time interval for the next shallower stop. The time intervals shown above begin
when ascent to the next shallower stop has begun.
21-5.4.5.8
Oxygen Breathing.
On a Treatment Table 7, patients should begin oxygen
breathing periods as soon as possible at 60 feet. Oxygen breathing periods of 25
minutes on 100 percent oxygen, followed by 5 minutes breathing chamber atmo-
sphere, should be used. Normally, four oxygen breathing periods are alternated
with 2 hours of continuous air breathing. In conscious patients, this cycle should
be continued until a minimum of eight oxygen breathing periods have been admin-
istered (previous 100 percent oxygen breathing periods may be counted against
these eight periods). Beyond that, oxygen breathing periods should be continued
as recommended by the Diving Medical Officer, as long as improvement is noted
and the oxygen is tolerated by the patient. If oxygen breathing causes significant
pain on inspiration, it should be discontinued unless it is felt that significant
benefit from oxygen breathing is being obtained. In unconscious patients, oxygen
breathing should be stopped after a maximum of 24 oxygen breathing periods
have been administered. The actual number and length of oxygen breathing
periods should be adjusted by the Diving Medical Officer to suit the individual
patients clinical condition and response to oxygen toxicity (paragraph 21-5.5.6.2).
Depth Rate Time Interval
58-40 feet 3 ft/hr 40 min
40-20 feet 2 ft/hr 60 min
20-4 feet 1 ft/hr 120 min
CHAPTER 21 — Recompression Therapy 21-17
21-5.4.5.9
Sleeping, Resting, and Eating.
At least two tenders should be available when
using Treatment Table 7, and three may be necessary for severely ill patients. Not
all tenders are required to be in the chamber, and they may be locked in and out as
required following appropriate decompression tables. The patient may sleep
anytime except when breathing oxygen deeper than 30 feet. While asleep, the
patients pulse, respiration, and blood pressure should be monitored and recorded
at intervals appropriate to the patient’s condition. Food may be taken at any time
and fluid intake should be maintained as outlined in paragraph 21-5.5.7.
21-5.4.5.10
Ancillary Care.
Patients on Treatment Table 7 requiring intravenous and/or drug
therapy should have these administered in accordance with paragraph 21-5.5.7 and
paragraph 21-5.5.7.1.
21-5.4.5.11
Life Support.
Before committing to a Treatment Table 7, the life-support consid-
erations in paragraph 21-5.6 must be addressed. Do not commit to a Treatment
Table 7 if the internal chamber temperature cannot be maintained at 85°F (29.4°C)
or less (paragraph 21-5.6.5).
21-5.4.5.12
Abort Procedures.
In some cases, a Treatment Table 7 may have to be terminated
early. If extenuating circumstances dictate early decompression and less than 12
hours have elapsed since treatment was begun, decompression may be accom-
plished using the appropriate 60-foot Air Decompression Table as modified
below. The 60-foot Air Decompression Tables may be used even if time was spent
between 60 and 165 feet (e.g., on Table 4 or 6A), as long as at least 3 hours have
elapsed since the last excursion below 60 feet. If less than 3 hours have elapsed, or
if any time was spent below 165 feet, use the Air Decompression Table appro-
priate to the maximum depth attained during treatment. All stops and times in the
Air Decompression Table should be followed, but oxygen-breathing periods
should be started for all chamber occupants as soon as a depth of 30 feet is
reached. All chamber occupants should continue oxygen-breathing periods of 25
minutes on 100 percent oxygen, followed by 5 minutes on air, until the total time
breathing oxygen is one-half or more of the total decompression time.
If more than 12 hours have elapsed since treatment was begun, the decompression
schedule of Treatment Table 7 shall be used. In extreme emergencies, the abort
recommendations (paragraph 21-8) may be used if more than 12 hours have
elapsed since beginning treatment.
21-5.4.6
Treatment Table 8.
Treatment Table 8 is an adaptation of a Royal Navy Treat-
ment Table 65 mainly for treating deep uncontrolled ascents (see Volume 3) when
more than 60 minutes of decompression have been missed. Compress symptom-
atic patient to depth of relief not to exceed 225 fsw. Initiate Treatment Table 8
from depth of relief. The Table 8 schedule from 60 feet is the same as Treatment
Table 7.
21-5.4.7
Treatment Table 9.
Treatment Table 9 is a hyperbaric oxygen treatment table
using 90 minutes of oxygen at 45 feet. This table is recommended by the Diving
Medical Officer cognizant of the patient’s medical condition. Treatment Table 9 is
used for the following:
21-18 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 5
Residual symptoms from AGE/DCS
Carbon monoxide or cyanide poisoning
Smoke inhalation
Medical hyperbaric oxygen therapy
This table may also be recommended by the cognizant Diving Medical Officer
when initially treating a severely injured patient whose medical condition
precludes long absences from definitive medical care.
21-5.5
Tending the Patient.
When conducting a recompression treatment, at least one
qualified tender shall be inside the chamber (Figure 21-1). The inside tender shall
be familiar with all treatment procedures and the signs, symptoms, and treatment
of all diving-related disorders.
21-5.5.1
DMO or DMT Inside Tender.
If it is known before the treatment begins that
involved medical aid must be administered to the patient, or if the patient is
suspected of suffering from arterial gas embolism, a Diving Medical Technician or
Diving Medical Officer should accompany the patient inside the chamber.
However, recompression treatment must not be delayed.
21-5.5.2
Use of DMO.
If only one Diving Medical Officer is present, the Medical Officers
time in the chamber should be kept to a minimum because effectiveness in
directing the treatment is greatly diminished when inside the chamber. If periods
in the chamber are necessary, visits should be kept within no-decompression limits
if possible.
21-5.5.3
Patient Positioning.
Inside the chamber, the tender ensures that the patient is
lying down and positioned to permit free blood circulation to all extremities. The
tender closes and secures the inner lock door and pressurization begins at 20 fpm.
Figure 21-1.
Inside
Tender.
CHAPTER 21 — Recompression Therapy 21-19
21-5.5.4
Equalizing During Descent.
Descent rates may have to be decreased as necessary
to allow the patient to equalize; however, it is vital to attain treatment depth in a
timely manner for a suspected arterial gas embolism patient.
21-5.5.5
Inside Tender Responsibilities.
During the early phases of treatment, the inside
tender must monitor the patient constantly for signs of relief. Drugs that mask
signs of the illness should not be given. Observation of these signs is the principal
method of diagnosing the patient’s illness. Furthermore, the depth and time of
their relief designates the treatment table to be used. The inside tender is also
responsible for:
Releasing the door latches (dogs) after a seal is made
Communications with outside personnel
Providing first aid as required by the patient
Administering treatment gas to the patient at treatment depth
Providing normal assistance to the patient as required
Ensuring that sound attenuators for ear protection are worn during compres-
sion and ventilation portions of recompression treatments
21-5.5.6
Oxygen Breathing and Toxicity During Treatments.
During prolonged treat-
ments on Treatment Tables 4, 7, or 8, pulmonary oxygen toxicity may develop.
Acute CNS oxygen toxicity may develop on any oxygen treatment table. Refer to
paragraph 19-2.4 for further discussion of oxygen toxicity during in-water dives.
21-5.5.6.1
Central Nervous System Oxygen Toxicity.
When employing the oxygen treat-
ment tables, tenders must be particularly alert for the early warning signs of CNS
oxygen toxicity. The warning signs can be remembered readily by using the
mnemonic VENTIDC (Vision, Ears, Nausea, Twitching\Tingling, Irritability,
Dizziness, Convulsions). For additional information, refer to paragraph 19-2.4.2.
21-5.5.6.1.1
Procedures in the Event of Oxygen Toxicity.
At the first sign of CNS oxygen
toxicity, the patient should be removed from oxygen and allowed to breathe
chamber air. Oxygen breathing may be restarted 15 minutes after all symptoms
have subsided. If symptoms of CNS oxygen toxicity develop again, interrupt
oxygen breathing for another 15 minutes. If CNS oxygen toxicity develops a third
time, contact a Diving Medical Officer as soon as possible to modify oxygen
breathing periods to meet requirements.
21-5.5.6.1.2
Interruptions Due to Oxygen Toxicity.
CNS oxygen toxicity is unlikely in resting
individuals at depths of 50 feet or shallower and very unlikely at 30 feet or shal-
lower, regardless of the level of activity. However, patients with severe Type II
decompression sickness or arterial gas embolism symptoms may be abnormally
sensitive to CNS oxygen toxicity. Convulsions unrelated to oxygen toxicity may
also occur and may be impossible to distinguish from oxygen seizures. Figure
21-20 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 5
21-7, Figure 21-8, and Figure 21-9 explain how to handle interruptions in oxygen
breathing on Treatment Tables 5, 6, and 6A. Treatment Tables 4, 7, and 8 do not
require compensatory lengthening or alteration if oxygen breathing must be inter-
rupted. If an oxygen convulsion occurs, discontinue oxygen and keep the patient
from harm. Inserting an airway device or bite block is unnecessary while the
patient is convulsing; it is not only difficult but may cause harm if attempted.
21-5.5.6.2
Pulmonary Oxygen Toxicity.
Pulmonary oxygen toxicity is unlikely to develop
on Treatment Tables 5, 6, or 6A. On Treatment Tables 4, 7, or 8, the large amounts
of oxygen that may have to be administered may result in end-inspiratory discom-
fort, progressing to substernal burning and severe pain on inspiration. Substernal
burning is normally cause for discontinuing oxygen breathing in patients who are
responding well to treatment. However, if a significant neurological deficit
remains and improvement is continuing (or if deterioration occurs when oxygen
breathing is interrupted), oxygen breathing should be continued as long as consid-
ered beneficial or until pain limits inspiration. If oxygen breathing must be
continued beyond the period of substernal burning, or if the 2-hour air breaks on
Treatment Tables 4, 7, or 8 cannot be used because of deterioration upon the
discontinuance of oxygen, the oxygen breathing periods should be changed to 20
minutes on oxygen, followed by 10 minutes breathing chamber air. The Diving
Medical Officer may tailor the above guidelines to suit individual patient response
to treatment.
21-5.5.7
Ancillary Care and Adjunctive Treatments.
Drug therapy should be administered
only after consultation with a Diving Medical Officer. Chamber tenders shall be
adequately trained and be capable of administering prescribed treatments. Always
ensure patients are adequately hydrated. Fully conscious patients may be given
fluid by mouth to maintain adequate hydration. One to two liters of water, juice, or
non-carbonated drink, over the course of a Treatment Table 5 or 6, is usually suffi-
cient. Patients with Type II symptoms, or symptoms of arterial gas embolism,
should be considered for IV fluids. Stuporous or unconscious patients should
always be given IV fluids, using large-gauge plastic catheters. If trained personnel
are present, an IV should be started as soon as possible and kept dripping at a rate
of 75 to 100 cc/hour, using isotonic fluids (Lactated Ringers Solution, Normal
Saline) until specific instructions regarding the rate and type of fluid administra-
tion are given by qualified medical personnel. Avoid solutions containing only
Dextrose (D5W) as they may contribute to edema as the sugar is metabolized. In
some cases, the bladder may be paralyzed. The victim’s ability to void shall be
assessed as soon as possible. If the patient cannot empty a full bladder, a urinary
catheter shall be inserted as soon as possible by trained personnel. Always inflate
catheter balloons with liquid, not air. Adequate fluid is being given when urine
output is at least 0.5cc/kg/hr. A gauge of proper hydration is a clear colorless
urine.
21-5.5.7.1
Steroids.
There is no consensus on the usefulness of adjunctive therapy, other
than IV fluids. The most frequently recommended adjunctive therapy is dexam-
ethasone (Decadron), based on the following reasons:
CHAPTER 21 — Recompression Therapy 21-21
It decreases tissue swelling (edema)
It decreases tissue inflammation
It decreases leaking of blood vessels
It helps prevent histamine release
General opinion is that spinal cord and brain edema cause many late-appearing
neurologic problems in DCS. Research suggests that dexamethasone is not useful
during treatment of AGE. In this case steroids may be useful but their efficiency
has not been proven. They do not become effective, however, for 4 to 6 hours after
intravenous introduction. Therefore, administer these drugs early in the treatment.
Do not delay recompression while preparing these drugs. For cerebral edema, the
initial recommended dose is 30 mg/kg IV bolus, followed by a constant infusion of
5.4 mg/kg/hr of methylprednisolone. Continue infusion for 23 hours. No benefit
has been documented if steroid treatment was not started within 8 hours of
symptoms.
21-5.5.7.2
Lidocaine.
Several studies suggest that Lidocaine used in antiarrhymic doses
(loading dose 1.5 mg/kg drip rate 1 mg/min) may be useful. Its mechanism of
action for treating DCS has been hypothesized as:
Reduction of cerebral metabolic rate
Preservation of cerebral blood flow
Reduction leukocyte adherence to damaged endothelium
NOTE Steroids or other dru
g
s can be used only upon the prescription by and
under supervision of a Divin
g
Medical Officer.
21-5.5.8
Sleeping and Eating.
The only time the patient should be kept awake during
recompression treatments is during oxygen breathing periods at depths greater
than 30 feet. Travel between decompression stops on Treatment Tables 4, 7, and 8
is not a contra-indication to sleeping. While asleep, vital signs (pulse, respiratory
rate, blood pressure) should be monitored as the patients condition dictates. Any
significant change would be reason to arouse the patient and ascertain the cause.
Food may be taken by chamber occupants at any time. Adequate fluid intake
should be maintained as discussed in paragraph 21-5.5.7.
21-5.6
Recompression Chamber Life-Support Considerations.
The short treatment ta-
bles (Oxygen Treatment Tables 5, 6, 6A; Air Treatment Tables 1A and 2A) can be
accomplished easily without significant strain on either the recompression
chamber facility or support crew. The long treatment tables (Tables 3, 4, 7, and 8)
will require long periods of decompression and may tax both personnel and hard-
ware severely.
21-5.6.1
Minimum Manning Requirements.
The minimum team for conducting any re-
compression operation shall consist of three individuals. In case of emergency, the
recompression chamber can be manned with two individuals.
21-22 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 5
1.
The Diving Supervisor is in complete charge at the scene of the operation,
keeping individual and overall times on the operation, logging progress, and
communicating with personnel inside the chamber.
2.
The Outside Tender is responsible for the operation of gas supplies, ventila-
tion, pressurization, and exhaust of the chamber.
3.
The Inside Tender is familiar with the diagnosis and treatment of diving-
related sicknesses.
21-5.6.2
Optimum Manning Requirements.
The optimum team for conducting recompres-
sion operations consists of four individuals:
1.
The Diving Supervisor is in complete charge at the scene of the operation.
2.
The Outside Tender #1 is responsible for the operation of the gas supplies,
ventilation, pressurization, and exhaust of the chamber.
3.
The Outside Tender #2 is responsible for keeping individuals’ and overall
times on the operation, logging progress as directed by the Diving Supervisor,
and communicating with personnel inside the chamber.
4.
The Inside Tender is familiar with the diagnosis and treatment of diving-
related sicknesses.
21-5.6.2.1
Additional Personnel.
If the patient has symptoms of serious decompression sick-
ness or arterial gas embolism, the team will require additional personnel. If the
treatment is prolonged, a second team may have to relieve the first team. Patients
with serious decompression sickness and gas embolism would initially be accom-
panied inside the chamber by a Diving Medical Technician or Diving Medical
Officer, if possible. However, treatment should not be delayed to comply with this
recommendation.
21-5.6.2.2
Required Consultation by a Diving Medical Officer.
A Diving Medical Officer
shall be consulted, if at all possible, before committing the patient to a Treatment
Table 4, 7, or 8. The Diving Medical Officer may be on scene or in communica-
tion with the Diving Supervisor.
21-5.6.3
Oxygen Control.
All treatment schedules listed in this chapter are usually
performed with a chamber atmosphere of air. To accomplish safe decompression,
the oxygen percentage should not be allowed to fall below 19 percent. Oxygen
may be added to the chamber by ventilating with air or by bleeding in oxygen
from an oxygen breathing system. If a portable oxygen analyzer is available, it can
be used to determine the adequacy of ventilation and/or addition of oxygen. If no
oxygen analyzer is available, ventilation of the chamber in accordance with para-
graph 21-5.6.6 will ensure adequate oxygenation. Chamber oxygen percentages as
high as 25 percent are permitted. If the chamber is equipped with a life-support
system so that ventilation is not required and an oxygen analyzer is available, the
oxygen level should be maintained between 19 percent and 25 percent. If chamber
CHAPTER 21 — Recompression Therapy 21-23
oxygen goes above 25 percent, ventilation with air should be used to bring the
oxygen percentage down.
21-5.6.4
Carbon Dioxide Control.
Ventilation of the chamber in accordance with para-
graph 21-5.6.6 will ensure that carbon dioxide produced metabolically does not
cause the chamber carbon dioxide level to exceed 1.5 percent SEV (11.4 mmHg).
21-5.6.4.1
Carbon Dioxide Monitoring.
Chamber carbon dioxide should be monitored with
electronic chamber carbon dioxide monitors. Monitors generally read CO
2
percentage once chamber air has been exhausted to the surface. The CO
2
percent
reading at the surface 1 ata must be corrected for depth. To keep chamber CO
2
below 1.5 percent SEV (11.4 mmHg), the surface CO
2
monitor values should
remain below 0.8 percent with chamber depth at 30 feet, 0.54 percent with
chamber depth at 60 feet, and 0.25 percent with the chamber at 165 feet. If the
CO
2
analyzer is within the chamber, no correction to the CO
2
readings is
necessary.
21-5.6.4.2
Carbon Dioxide Scrubbing.
If the chamber is equipped with a carbon dioxide
scrubber, the absorbent should be changed when the partial pressure of carbon
dioxide in the chamber reaches 1.5 percent SEV (11.4 mmHg). If absorbent cannot
be changed, supplemental chamber ventilation will be required to maintain
chamber CO
2
at acceptable levels. With multiple or working chamber occupants,
supplemental ventilation may be necessary to maintain chamber CO
2
at acceptable
levels.
21-5.6.4.3
Carbon Dioxide Absorbent.
CO
2
absorbent may be used beyond the expiration
date, when used in a recompression chamber scrubber unit, when the recompres-
sion chamber is equipped with a CO
2
monitor. When employed in a
recompression chamber that has no CO
2
monitor, CO
2
absorbent in an opened but
resealed bucket may be used until the expiration date on the bucket is reached.
Pre-packed, double-bagged canisters shall be labeled with the expiration date from
the absorbent bucket.
21-5.6.5
Temperature Control.
If possible, internal chamber temperature should be main-
tained at a level comfortable to the occupants. Cooling can usually be
accomplished by chamber ventilation in accordance with paragraph 21-5.6.6. If
the chamber is equipped with a heater/chiller unit, temperature control can usually
be maintained for chamber occupant comfort under any external environmental
conditions. Usually, recompression chambers will become hot and must be cooled
continuously. Chambers should always be shaded from direct sunlight. The
maximum durations for chamber occupants will depend on the internal chamber
temperature as listed in Table 21-4. Never commit to a treatment table that will
expose the chamber occupants to greater temperature/time combinations than
listed in Table 21-4 unless qualified medical personnel who can evaluate the trade-
off between the projected heat stress and the anticipated treatment benefit are
consulted. A chamber temperature below 85°F (29.4°C) is always desirable, no
matter which treatment table is used.
21-24 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 5
21-5.6.5.1
Patient Hydration.
Successful treatment of decompression sickness depends upon
adequate hydration. Thirst is an unreliable indicator of the water intake necessary
to compensate for heavy sweating, and isolation of the patient within the recom-
pression chamber makes it difficult to assess his overall fluid balance. By
providing adequate hydration and following the temperature/time guidelines in
Table 21-4, heat exhaustion and heat stroke can be avoided. If the chamber
temperature is above 85°F (29.4°C), tenders should monitor patients for signs of
thermal stress. If the chamber temperature is above 85°F, chamber occupants
should drink approximately one liter of water hourly; below 85°F they should
drink an average of one-half liter hourly. Clear colorless urine in patients and
tenders is a good indication of adequate hydration.
21-5.6.6
Chamber Ventilation.
Ventilation is the usual means of controlling oxygen level,
carbon dioxide level, and temperature. Ventilation using air is required for cham-
bers without carbon dioxide scrubbers and atmospheric analysis. A ventilation rate
of two acfm for each resting occupant, and four acfm for each active occupant,
should be used. Chamber ventilation procedures are presented in paragraph
22-5.4. These procedures are designed to assure that the effective concentration of
carbon dioxide will not exceed 1.5 percent SEV (11.4 mmHg) and that, when
oxygen is being used, the percentage of oxygen in the chamber will not exceed 25
percent.
Table 21-4. Maximum Permissible Recompression Chamber Exposure Times at
Various Temperatures.
Internal Temperature Maximum Tolerance Time
Permissible Treatment
Tables
Over 104°F
(40°C)
Intolerable No treatments
95-104°F
(34.4-40°C)
2 hours Table 5, 9
85-94°F
(29.4-34.4°C)
6 hours Tables 5, 6, 6A, 1A, 9
Under 85°F
(29.4°C)
Unlimited All
NOTE
Internal chamber temperature can be kept considerably below ambient by venting or by using an
installed chiller unit. Internal chamber temperature can be measured using electronic, bimetallic,
alcohol, or liquid crystal thermometers.
Never use a mercury thermometer in or around hyperbaric
chambers
. Since chamber ventilation will produce temperature swings during ventilation, the above
limits should be used as averages when controlling temperature by ventilation.
Always shade
chamber from direct sunlight
.
CHAPTER 21 — Recompression Therapy 21-25
21-5.6.7
Access to Chamber Occupants.
Recompression treatments usually require ac-
cess to occupants for passing in items such as food, water, and drugs and passing
out such items as urine, excrement, and trash. Never attempt a treatment longer
than a Treatment Table 6 unless there is access to inside occupants. When doing a
Treatment Table 4, 7, or 8, a double-lock chamber is mandatory because addi-
tional personnel may have to be locked in and out during treatment.
21-5.6.8
Inside Tenders.
For Type I decompression sickness, one qualified inside tender
is required. For Type II decompression sickness, medical personnel may have to
be locked into the chamber as the patients condition dictates. If one Diving
Medical Officer is on site, the Medical Officer should lock in and out as the
patients condition dictates, but should not commit to the entire treatment unless
absolutely necessary. Once committed to remain in the chamber, the Diving
Medical Officer will not be able to aid the treatment as well and consultation with
other medical personnel becomes more difficult.
21-5.6.8.1
Oxygen Breathing.
During treatments, all chamber occupants may breathe 100
percent oxygen at depths of 45 feet or shallower without locking in additional
personnel. Tenders should not fasten the oxygen masks to their heads, but should
hold them on their faces. When deeper than 45 feet, at least one chamber occupant
must breathe air.
21-5.6.8.1.1
Table 4.
On Table 4, tenders are required to breathe oxygen for 2 hours before
leaving 30 feet and for 2 additional hours during decompression from 30 feet to
the surface.
21-5.6.8.1.2
Table 5.
On Table 5, oxygen should be breathed by the tender during the final 30-
minute ascent to the surface. If the tender has had a previous hyperbaric exposure,
an additional 20 minutes of oxygen breathing is required at 30 feet prior to ascent.
(See Table 21-6.)
21-5.6.8.1.3
Table 6.
For an unmodified Table 6 or when there has been only a single exten-
sion at 60 or 30 feet, the tender breathes 100 percent oxygen for the final 30
minutes at 30 feet and during ascent to the surface. If there has been more than one
extension, oxygen breathing is done for the last 60-minute period at 30 feet and
during ascent to the surface. If the tender has had a dive/hyperbaric exposure
within the past 12 hours, an additional 60-minute oxygen period at 30 feet is
required. (See Table 21-6.)
21-5.6.8.1.4
Table 6A.
For an unmodified Table 6A or when there has been only a single
extension at 60 or 30 feet, the tender breathes 100 percent oxygen for the final 60
minutes at 30 feet and during ascent to the surface. If there has been more than one
extension, oxygen breathing is done for 90 minutes at 30 feet and during ascent to
the surface. If the tender has had a dive/hyperbaric exposure within the past 12
hours, an additional 60-minutes of oxygen at 30 feet is required. (See Table 21-6.)
21-5.6.8.1.5
Table 9.
On Table 9, the tender breathes 100 percent oxygen during the last 15
minutes at 45 feet and during ascent to the surface, regardless of the ascent rate
used.
21-26 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 5
21-5.6.8.1.6
Tending Frequency.
Normally, tenders should allow a surface interval of at least
12 hours between consecutive treatments on Tables 1A, 2A, 3, 5, 6, and 6A, and at
least 48 hours between consecutive treatments on Tables 4, 7, and 8. If necessary,
however, tenders may repeat Treatment Tables 5, 6, or 6A within this 12-hour
surface interval if oxygen is breathed at 30 feet and shallower as outlined above.
Minimum surface intervals for Tables 1A, 2A, 3, 4, and 7 shall be strictly
observed.
21-5.7
Loss of Oxygen During Treatment.
Loss of oxygen-breathing capability during
oxygen treatments is a rare occurrence. However, should this occur, the following
should be done:
If repair can be effected within 15 minutes:
Maintain depth until repair completed.
After O
2
is restored, resume treatment at point of interruption.
If repair can be effected after 15 minutes but before 2 hours:
Maintain depth until repair completed
After O
2
is restored: If original table was Table 5, 6, or 6A, complete treatment
on Table 6 schedule with maximum number of O
2
extensions.
21-5.7.1
Compensation.
If Table 4, 7, or 8 is being used, no compensation in decompres-
sion is needed if O
2
lost. If decompression must be stopped because of worsening
symptoms in the affected diver, then stop decompression. When oxygen is
restored, continue treatment from where it was stopped.
21-5.7.2
Switching to Air Treatment Table.
If O
2
breathing cannot be restored in 2 hours
switch to comparable air Treatment Table at current depth for decompression if 60
fsw or shallower. Rate of ascent must not exceed 1 fpm between stops. If an
increase in treatment depth deeper than 60 feet is needed, use Treatment Table 4.
21-5.8
Use of High-Oxygen Mixes.
High-oxygen N
2
O
2
/HeO
2
mixtures may be adminis-
tered during treatment when 100 percent oxygen cannot be tolerated. The
premixed gases shown in Table 21-5 may be used over the depth range of 0-225
fsw.
Table 21-5. High-Oxygen Treatment Gas Mixtures.
Depth (fsw) Mix (HeO
2
or N
2
O
2
) ppO
2
0–60 100% 1.00–2.82
61–100 50/50 1.42–2.02
101–165 60/40 1.62–2.4
166–225 64/36 (HeO
2
) 2.17–2.8
CHAPTER 21 — Recompression Therapy 21-27
High-oxygen mixtures can be used for treating patients at depth when no signifi-
cant improvement was made at 60 fsw. High-oxygen mixtures may also be used
for patients experiencing pulmonary oxygen toxicity at 60 fsw and shallower.
Ideally, the ppO
2
of the treatment gas used should be 1.5 to 2.8 ata. Using nitrogen
as the background gas is an acceptable practice for treating DCS/AGE. Recent
studies suggest that using helium as the background gas may be more beneficial.
Using HeO
2
reduces the amount of nitrogen dissolved in the patient’s tissue and
facilitates the off-gassing of nitrogen.
21-5.9
Treatment at Altitude - Tender Consideration.
Divers serving as inside tenders
during hyperbaric treatments at altitude are performing a dive at altitude and there-
fore require more decompression than at sea level. Tenders locking into the
chamber for brief periods should be managed according to the Diving At Altitude
procedures (paragraph 9-12). Tenders remaining in the chamber for the full treat-
ment table must breathe oxygen during the terminal portion of the treatment to
satisfy their decompression requirement.
The additional oxygen breathing required at altitude on TT5, TT6, and TT6A is
given below. The requirement pertains both to tenders equilibrated at altitude and
to tenders flown directly from sea level to the chamber location.
Contact NAVSEA 00C for guidance on tender oxygen administration for other
treatment tables.
Table 21-6. Tender Oxygen Breathing Requirements.
1
Altitude
Treatment Table (TT)
Surface to 2499 ft. 2500 ft. – 7499 ft. 7500 ft. – 10,000 ft.
TT5 without extension :00 :00 :00
with extension @ 30 fsw :00 :00 :20
TT6
2
up to one extension @ 60 fsw or 30 fsw :30 :60 :90
more than one extension :60 :90 :120
TT6A
2
up to one extension @ 60 fsw or 30 fsw :60 :120 :150
3
more than one extension :90 :150
3
:180
3
Note 1 All tender O
2
breathin
g
times in table are conducted at 30 fsw.
In addition, tenders will breathe O
2
on ascent from 30 fsw to
the surface.
Note 2 If the tender had a previous hyperbaric exposure within 12 hours, use the followin
g
g
uidance for administerin
g
O
2
:
For TT5, add an additional 20 minute O
2
breathin
g
period to the times in the table.
For TT6 or TT6A, add an additional 60 minute O
2
breathin
period to the times in the table.
Note 3 In some instances, tender’s oxy
g
en breathin
g
obli
g
ation exceeds the table stay time at 30 fsw. Extend the time at 30 fsw to
meet these obli
g
ations
if
patient’s condition permits. Otherwise, adminster O
2
to the tender to the limit allowed by the
treatment table and observe the tender on the surface for 1 hour for symptoms of DCS.
21-28 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 5
21-6
POST-TREATMENT CONSIDERATIONS
Tenders on Tables 5, 6, 6A, 1A, 2A, or 3 should have a minimum of a 12-hour
surface interval before no-decompression diving and a minimum of a 24-hour
surface interval before dives requiring decompression stops. Tenders on Tables 4,
7, and 8 should have a minimum of a 48-hour surface interval prior to diving.
21-6.1
Post-Treatment Observation Period.
After a treatment, patients treated on a
Treatment Table 5 should remain at the recompression chamber facility for 2
hours. Patients who have been treated for Type II decompression sickness or who
required a Treatment Table 6 for Type I symptoms and have had complete relief
should remain at the recompression chamber facility for 6 hours. These times may
be shortened upon the recommendation of a Diving Medical Officer, provided the
patient will be with personnel who are experienced at recognizing recurrence of
symptoms and can return to the recompression facility within 30 minutes. All
patients should remain within 60 minutes of a recompression facility for 24 hours
and should not be left alone during that period.
21-6.2
Post-Treatment Transfer.
Patients with residual symptoms should be transferred
to appropriate medical facilities as directed by qualified medical personnel. If
ambulatory patients are sent home, they should always be accompanied by
someone familiar with their condition who can return them to the recompression
facility should the need arise. Patients completing treatment do not have to remain
in the vicinity of the chamber if the Diving Medical Officer feels that transferring
them to a medical facility immediately is in their best interest.
21-6.3
Inside Tenders.
Treatment table profiles place the inside tender(s) at risk for
decompression sickness. After completing treatments, inside tenders should
remain in the vicinity of the recompression chamber for 1 hour. If they were
tending for Treatment Table 4, 7, or 8, inside tenders should also remain within 60
minutes of a recompression facility for 24 hours.
21-6.4
Flying After Treatments.
Patients with residual symptoms should fly only with
the concurrence of a Diving Medical Officer. Patients who have been treated for
decompression sickness or arterial gas embolism and have complete relief should
not fly for 72 hours after treatment, at a minimum.
21-6.4.1
Emergency Air Evacuation.
Some patients will require air evacuation to another
treatment or medical facility immediately after surfacing from a treatment. They
will not meet surface interval requirements as described above. Such evacuation is
done only on the recommendation of a Diving Medical Officer. Aircraft pressur-
ized to one ata should be used if possible, or unpressurized aircraft flown as low as
safely possible (no more than 1,000 feet is preferable). Have the patient breathe
100 percent oxygen during transport, if available.
21-6.4.2
Tender Surface Interval.
Tenders on Tables 5, 6, 6A, 1A, 2A, or 3 should have a
24-hour surface interval before flying. Tenders on tables 4, 7, and 8 should not fly
for 72 hours.
CHAPTER 21 — Recompression Therapy 21-29
21-6.5
Treatment of Residual Symptoms.
After completion of the initial recompression
treatment and after a surface interval sufficient to allow complete medical evalua-
tion, additional recompression treatments may be instituted. For persistent Type II
symptoms, daily treatment on Table 6 may be used, but twice-daily treatments on
Treatment Tables 5 or 9 may also be used. The treatment table chosen for re-treat-
ments must be based upon the patient’s medical condition and the potential for
pulmonary oxygen toxicity. Patients surfacing from Treatment Table 6A with
extensions, 4, 7, or 8 may have severe pulmonary oxygen toxicity and may find
breathing 100 percent oxygen at 45 or 60 feet to be uncomfortable. In these cases,
daily treatments at 33 feet may also be used. As many oxygen breathing periods
(30 minutes on oxygen followed by 5 minutes on air) should be administered as
can be tolerated by the patient. Ascent to the surface is at 20 feet per minute. A
minimum oxygen breathing time is 90 minutes. A practical maximum bottom time
is 3 to 4 hours at 33 feet. Treatments should not be administered on a daily basis
for more than 5 days without a break of at least 1 day. These guidelines may have
to be modified by the Diving Medical Officer to suit individual patient circum-
stances and tolerance to oxygen as measured by decrements in the patient’s vital
capacity.
21-6.5.1
Additional Recompression Treatments.
Additional recompression treatments are
indicated as long as they are prescribed by a Diving Medical Officer. In treating
residual symptoms, no response to recompression may occur on the first one or
two treatments. In these cases, the Diving Medical Officer is the best judge as to
the number of treatments. Consultation with NEDU or NDSTC may be appro-
priate (phone numbers are listed in paragraph 21-1.4). As the delay time between
completion of initial treatment and the beginning of follow-up hyperbaric treat-
ments increases, the probability of benefit from additional treatments decreases.
However, improvement has been noted in patients who have had delay times of up
to 1 week. Therefore, a long delay is not necessarily a reason to preclude follow-
up treatments. Once residual symptoms respond to additional recompression treat-
ments, such treatments should be continued until no further benefit is noted. In
general, treatment may be discontinued if there is no further sustained improve-
ment on two consecutive treatments.
21-6.6
Returning to Diving after Treatment Table 5.
Divers who meet all of the criteria
for treatment using Treatment Table 5, as outlined in paragraph 21-5.4.1 and who
have had complete relief, may return to normal diving activity 7 days after
surfacing from the Treatment Table 5. If there is any doubt about the presence or
absence of Type II symptoms, the diver should be examined by a Diving Medical
Officer before resumption of diving.
21-6.6.1
Returning to Diving After Treatment Table 6.
Divers who had symptoms of arte-
rial gas embolism, Type II DCS, or Type I DCS requiring a Treatment Table 6
should not dive for at least 4 weeks and should resume diving only upon the
recommendation of a Diving Medical Officer.
21-6.6.2
Returning to Diving After Treatment Table 4 or 7.
A diver having cardiorespira-
tory and/or CNS symptoms severe enough to warrant Treatment Table 4 or 7
21-30 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 5
should not dive for a minimum of 3 months, and not until a thorough review of his
case by a Diving Medical Officer has established that return to normal diving
activity can be accomplished safely.
21-7
NON-STANDARD TREATMENTS
The treatment recommendations presented in this chapter should be followed as
closely as possible unless it becomes evident that they are not working. Only a
Diving Medical Officer may then recommend changes to treatment protocols or
use treatment techniques other than those described in this chapter. Any modifica-
tions to treatment tables shall be approved by the Commanding Officer. The
standard treatment procedures in this chapter should be considered minimum
treatments. Treatment procedures should never be shortened unless emergency
situations arise that require chamber occupants to leave the chamber early, or the
patients medical condition precludes the use of standard U.S. Navy treatment
tables.
21-8
RECOMPRESSION TREATMENT ABORT PROCEDURES
Once recompression therapy is started, it should be completed according to the
procedures in this chapter unless the diver being treated dies or unless continuing
the treatment would place the chamber occupants in mortal danger.
21-8.1
Death During Treatment.
If it appears that the diver being treated has died, a qual-
ified medical personnel shall be consulted before the treatment is aborted. If this is
done, then the tenders may be decompressed by completing the treatment table, by
following the air decompression schedule (as modified below), or contact NEDU
or NDSTC for decompression procedures for the total time since treatment began
and the maximum depth attained. The shortest procedure should be used. The
exception is Treatment Table 7; the appropriate abort procedure for Table 7 is
discussed in paragraph 21-5.4.5.12.
21-8.2
Oxygen Breathing Periods During Abort Procedure.
The air decompression
schedule used in recompression treatment aborts is modified by having all
chamber occupants begin breathing oxygen as soon as a depth of 30 feet or shal-
lower is reached. Oxygen-breathing periods of 25 minutes on oxygen, followed by
5 minutes on air, are continued until the total time on oxygen is one-half or more
of the total decompression time. This procedure may be used even if gases other
than air (i.e., nitrogen-oxygen or helium-oxygen mixtures) were breathed during
treatment. Upon surfacing, chamber occupants are treated as if they had surfaced
from a normal dive.
21-8.3
Impending Natural Disasters or Mechanical Failures.
Impending natural disas-
ters or mechanical failures may require aborting treatments. For instance, the ship
where the chamber is located may be in imminent danger of sinking or a fire or
explosion may have severely damaged the chamber system to such an extent that
completing the treatment is impossible. In these cases, the abort procedure
CHAPTER 21 — Recompression Therapy 21-31
described above could be used for all chamber occupants (including the stricken
diver) if time is available. If time is not available, the following may be done:
1.
If deeper than 60 feet, go immediately to 60 feet.
2.
Once the chamber is 60 feet or shallower, put all chamber occupants on con-
tinuous 100 percent oxygen.
3.
Follow as much of the air decompression schedule (for maximum depth and
total time) as possible, breathing 100 percent oxygen continuously.
4.
When no more time is available, bring all chamber occupants to the surface
(try not to exceed 10 feet per minute) and keep them on 100 percent oxygen
during evacuation, if possible.
5.
Immediately evacuate all chamber occupants to the nearest recompression
facility and treat according to Figure 21-4. If no symptoms occurred after the
treatment was aborted, follow Treatment Table 6.
21-9
EMERGENCY MEDICAL EQUIPMENT
Every diving activity shall maintain emergency medical equipment that will be
available immediately for use at the scene of a diving accident (Figure 21-2). This
equipment is to be in addition to any medical supplies maintained in a medical
treatment facility and shall be kept in a kit small enough to carry into the chamber,
or in a locker in the immediate vicinity of the chamber.
21-9.1
Primary Emergency Kit.
Because some sterile items may become contaminated
as a result of a hyperbaric exposure, it is desirable to have a primary kit for imme-
diate use inside the chamber and a secondary kit from which items that may
become contaminated can be locked into the chamber only as needed. The lists of
contents presented here are not meant to be restrictive but are considered the
minimum requirement. Additional items may be added to suit local medical
preferences.
21-9.2
Emergency Kits.
The Primary Emergency Kit is described in Table 21-7; the
Secondary Emergency Kit is described in Table 21-8a.
21-9.2.1
Primary Emergency Kit.
The primary emergency kit contains diagnostic and ther-
apeutic equipment that is available immediately when required. This kit shall be
inside the chamber during all treatments.
21-9.2.2
Secondary Emergency Kit.
The secondary emergency kit contains equipment and
medicine that does not need to be available immediately, but can be locked-in
when required. This kit shall be stored in the vicinity of the chamber.
21-9.2.3
Portable Monitor-Defibrillator.
Only commands having recompression chambers
with a medical officer attached shall maintain a portable monitor-defibrillator and
those drugs listed with an asterisk (*). These drugs need to be in sufficient quanti-
21-32 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 5
ties to support an event requiring Advanced Cardiac Life Support. These
drugs/equipment are not required to be in every dive kit when multiple cham-
bers/kits are present in a single command.
21-9.3
Use of Emergency Kits.
Unless adequately sealed against increased atmospheric
pressure, sterile supplies should be resterilized after each pressure exposure, or, if
not exposed, at six-month intervals. Drugs shall be replaced when their expiration
date is reached. Not all drug ampules will withstand pressure. Stoppered multidose
vials should be vented with a needle during pressurization and then discarded if
not used.
21-9.3.1
Modification of Emergency Kits.
Because the available facilities may differ on
board ship, at land-based diving installations, and at diver training or experimental
units, the responsible Diving Medical Officer or Diving Medical Technician will
have to modify the emergency kits to suit the local needs. Both kits should be
taken to the recompression chamber or scene of the accident. Each kit is to contain
a list of contents. Each time the kit is opened, it shall be inventoried and each item
checked for proper working order and then re-sterilized. Sterile supplies are to be
provided in duplicate so that one set can be autoclaved while the other resides in
the kit. The kits on-hand are inventoried, unopened, at four-month intervals.
Normally, use of the emergency kit is to be restricted to the medical personnel.
Concise instructions for administrating each drug are to be provided in the kit
along with current American Heart Association Advanced Cardiac Life-Support
Figure 21-2.
Emergency Medical Equipment for TRCS.
CHAPTER 21 — Recompression Therapy 21-33
Protocols. In untrained hands, many of the items can be dangerous. Remember
that as in all treatments YOUR FIRST DUTY IS TO DO NO HARM.
Table 21-7.
Primary Emergency Kit.
Diagnostic Equipment
Flashlight
Stethoscope
Otoscope (Ophthalmoscope)
Sphygmomanometer (Aneroid type only, case vented for hyperbaric use)
Reflex hammer
Tuning Fork (256 cps)
Sterile safety pins or swab sticks which can be broken for sensory testing
Tongue depressors
Emergency Treatment Equipment and Medications
Oropharyngeal airways (#4 and #5 Geudel)
Self-Inflating Clear Bag-Mask ventilator with medium adult mask
NOTE: Some of these units do not have sufficient bag volume to provide
adequate ventilation. Use a Laerdal Resusci Folding Bag II (Adult) or
equivalent.
Suction apparatus
Nonflexible plastic suction tips (Yankauer Suction Tip)
Large-bore needle and catheter (12 or 14 gauge) for cricothyrotomy or relief of
tension pneumothorax
Chest tube
Small Penrose drain, Heimlich valve, or other device to provide one-way flow of
gas out of the chest
Christmas tree adapter (to connect one-way valve to chest tube)
Adhesive tape (2-inch waterproof)
Elastic-Wrap bandage for a tourniquet (2- and 4-inch)
Tourniquet
Bandage Scissors
#11 knife blade and handle
Curved Kelly forceps
10% povidone-iodine swabs or wipes
1% lidocaine solution
#21 ga. 1½-inch needles on 5 cc syringes
Cravets
20 cc syringe
NOTE 1: One Primary Emergency Kit is required per chamber system (i.e., TRCS
requires one).
21-34 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 5
Table 21-8a.
Secondary Emergency Kit
(sheet 1 of 2)
.
Emergency Airway Equipment
Cuffed endotracheal tubes with adapters (7-9.5 mm)
Syringe and sterile water for cuff inflation (10 cc)
Malleable stylet (approx. 12" in length)
Laryngoscope blades (McIntosh #3 and #4, Miller #2 and #3)
Sterile lubricant
Soft-rubber suction catheters
#32F and #34F latex rubber nasal airways
5% or 2% lidocaine ointment
Drugs
Lactated Ringer’s Solution (3 ea 1-liter bags)
Normal saline (2 ea 1-liter bags, 4 ea 250-ml bags for mixing drugs)
* Atropine for injection (2 ea 1-mg)
* Sodium bicarbonate for injection (8 ea mEg)
* Verapamil for injection (4 ea 5-mg)
* Dexamethasone for injection (4 ea 5-ml, 4 ea mg/ml)
* Epinephrine (1 /10,000) for injection (4 ea 1-mg)
* Lidocaine for injection (4 ea 100-mg)
* Diphenhydramine hydrochloride for injection (4 ea 50-mg)
* Diazepam for injection (4 ea 10-mg)
* Sodium phenytoin for injection (4 ea 250-mg)
* Procainmide hydrochloride for injection (2 ea 1,000-mg)
* Dopamine hydrochloride (4 ea 200-mg)
* Furosemide for injection (4 ea 20-mg)
* Bretylium tosylate (3 ea 500-mg)
* Mannitol (4 ea 12.5-g in 50 ml)
* Adenosine (4 ea 12-mg)
* Sterile water for injection
Aspirin Tablets
Aspirin rectal suppositories
NOTE 1: Only commands having recompression chambers with a Medical Officer
attached shall maintain a portable monitor-defibrillator and those drugs listed with
an asterisk (*).
NOTE 2: Whenever possible, preloaded syringe injection sets should be obtained
to avoid the need to vent multidose vials or prevent implosion of ampules.
Sufficient quantities should be maintained to treat one injured diver.
NOTE 3: One Secondary Emergency Kit is required per chamber system (i.e.,
TRCS requires one).
CHAPTER 21 — Recompression Therapy 21-35
Table 21-8b. Secondary Emergency Kit (sheet 2 of 2).
Miscellaneous
Nasogastric tube
Urinary catheterization set with collection bag (Foley type)
Catheter and needle unit, intravenous (16- and 18-gauge - 4 ea)
Intravenous infusion sets (4)
Intravenous infusion extension sets with injection ports (2)
Straight and curved hemostats (2 ea)
Blunt straight surgical scissors
Thermometer (non-mercury type, high and low reading preferably)
Syringes (2, 5, 10 and 30 cc)
Sterile needles (18-, 20-, and 22- gauge)
3-way stopcocks
Wound closure instrument tray
Needle driver
Assorted suture material (with and without needles)
Assorted scalpel blades and handle
Surgical soap
Sterile towels
Sterile gloves (6-8)
Gauze roller bandage, 1-inch and 2-inch, sterile
10% povidone-iodine swabs or wipes
Cotton Balls
Gauze pads, sterile, 4-inch by 4-inch
Band aids
Splints
NOTE: A portable oxygen supply with an E cylinder (approximately 669 liters of
oxygen) is recommended whenever possible in the event the patient needs to be
transported to another facility.
21-36 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 5
Figure 21-3.
Treatment of Decompression Sickness Occurring while at Decompression Stop in the Water.
NOTES:
1. If 100 percent O
2
is available for divers with a helmet or full face mask,
shift to this
g
as at depths of 30 fsw or less.
2. As an option, the Divin
g
Supervisor may elect not to recompress the
diver 10 feet in the water, but to remove the diver from the water when
decompression risks are acceptable and treat the diver in the chamber.
3. If recompression
g
oes deeper than the depth of the first stop in the
Decompression Table use a stop time equal to 1-1/2 times the first stop
in the Decompression Table for the one stop deeper than the first stop.
Always take a stop every 10 feet.
4. No oxy
g
en available.
CHAPTER 21 — Recompression Therapy 21-37
Figure 21-4.
Decompression Sickness Treatment from Diving or Altitude Exposures.
NOTES
1. If a complete neurological exam was
not completed before recompression,
treat as a Type II symptom.
2. Treatment Table 6 may be extended up
to four additional oxygen-breathing
periods, two at 30 feet and/or two at 60
feet.
3. Diving Supervisor may elect to treat on
Treatment Table 6.
4. Treatment Table 5 may be extended
two oxygen-breathing periods at 30
fsw.
21-38 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 5
Figure 21-5.
Treatment of Arterial Gas Embolism or Decompression Sickness.
NOTES:
1. A Diving Medical Officer shall be
consulted before committing to a
Treatment Table 4 or 7.
2. Treatment Table 6A may be extended
if necessary at 60 and/or under 30
feet.
3. Cardiac arrest requires Advanced
Cardiac Life Support (ACLS). For the
greatest chance of resuscitation
consultation with a Diving Medical
Officer is required as soon as possible
(see paragraph 20-2.6).
4. Recompression chamber must be
surfaced to perform defibrillation.
5. Assessment of patient must be made
within 20 minutes. If the stricken diver
remains pulseless after 20 minutes,
termination of resuscitation may be
considered.
6. Additional time may be required
according to paragraph 21-5.4.5.4.
7. Enter Treatment Table 6A at depth of
relief or significant improvement.
CHAPTER 21 — Recompression Therapy 21-39
Figure 21-6.
Treatment of Symptom Recurrence.
NOTES:
1. A Diving Medical Officer
shall be consulted before
committing to a
Treatment Table 4 or 7.
2. Treatment Table 6 may
be extended up to two
additional oxygen
breathing periods at 30
and/or 60 feet.
3. Additional time may be
required according to
paragraph 21-5.4.5.4.
21-40 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 5
Treatment Table 5
1. Descent rate - 20 ft/min.
2. Ascent rate - Not to exceed 1 ft/min. Do not compensate
for slower ascent rates. Compensate for faster rates by
haltin
g
the ascent.
3. Time on oxy
g
en be
g
ins on arrival at 60 feet.
4. If oxy
g
en breathin
g
must be interrupted because of CNS
Oxy
g
en Toxicity, allow 15 minutes after the reaction has
entirely subsided and resume schedule at point of
interruption (see para
g
raph 21-5.5.6.1.1)
5. Treatment Table may be extended two oxy
g
en-breathin
g
periods at the 30-foot stop. No air break required between
oxy
g
en-breathin
g
periods or prior to ascent.
6. Tender breathes 100 percent O
2
durin
g
ascent from the
30-foot stop to the surface. If the tender had a previous
hyperbaric exposure in the previous 12 hours, an
additional 20 minutes of oxy
g
en breathin
g
is required prior
to ascent.
Figure 21-7.
Treatment Table 5.
CHAPTER 21 — Recompression Therapy 21-41
Treatment Table 6
1. Descent rate - 20 ft/min.
2. Ascent rate - Not to exceed 1 ft/min. Do not compensate
for slower ascent rates. Compensate for faster rates by
haltin
g
the ascent.
3. Time on oxy
g
en be
g
ins on arrival at 60 feet.
4. If oxy
g
en breathin
g
must be interrupted because of CNS
Oxy
g
en Toxicity, allow 15 minutes after the reaction has
entirely subsided and resume schedule at point of
interruption (see para
g
raph 21-5.5.6.1.1).
5. Table 6 can be len
g
thened up to 2 additional 25-minute
periods at 60 feet (20 minutes on oxy
g
en and 5 minutes
on air), or up to 2 additional 75-minute periods at 30 feet
(15 minutes on air and 60 minutes on oxy
g
en), or both.
6. Tender breathes 100 percent O
2
durin
g
the last 30 min. at
30 fsw and durin
g
ascent to the surface for an unmodified
table or where there has been only a sin
g
le extension at
30 or 60 feet. If there has been more than one extension,
the O
2
breathin
g
at 30 feet is increased to 60 minutes. If
the tender had a hyperbaric exposure within the past 12
hours an additional 60-minute O
2
period is taken at 30
feet.
Figure 21-8.
Treatment Table 6.
21-42 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 5
Treatment Table 6A
1. Descent rate - 20 ft/min.
2. Ascent rate - 165 fsw to 60 fsw not to exceed 3 ft/min, 60
fsw and shallower, not to exceed 1 ft/min. Do not
compensate for slower ascent rates. Compensate for
faster rates by haltin
g
the ascent.
3. Time at treatment depth does not include compression
time.
4. Table be
g
ins with initial compression to depth of 60 fsw. If
initial treatment was at 60 feet, up to 20 minutes may be
spent at 60 feet before compression to 165 fsw. Contact a
Divin
g
Medical Officer.
5. If a chamber is equipped with a hi
g
h-O
2
treatment
g
as, it
may be administered at 165 fsw and shallower, not to
exceed 2.8 ata O
2
in accordance with para
g
raph 21-5.7.
Treatment
g
as is administered for 25 minutes interrupted
by 5 minutes of air. Treatment
g
as is breathed durin
g
ascent from the treatment depth to 60 fsw.
6. Deeper than 60 feet, if treatment
g
as must be interrupted
because of CNS oxy
g
en toxicity, allow 15 minutes after
the reaction has entirely subsided before resumin
g
treatment
g
as. The time off treatment
g
as is counted as
part of the time at treatment depth. If at 60 feet or
shallower and oxy
g
en breathin
g
must be interrupted
because of CNS oxy
g
en toxicity, allow 15 minutes after
the reaction has entirely subsided and resume schedule
at point of interruption (see para
g
raph 21-5.5.6.1.1).
7. Table 6A can be len
g
thened up to 2 additional 25-minute
periods at 60 feet (20 minutes on oxy
g
en and 5 minutes
on air), or up to 2 additional 75-minute periods at 30 feet
(60-minutes on oxy
g
en and 15 minutes on air), or both.
8. Tenders breathes 100 percent O
2
durin
g
the last 60
minutes at 30 fsw and durin
g
ascent to the surface for an
unmodified table or where there has been only a sin
g
le
extension at 30 or 60 fsw. If there has been more than
one extension, the O
2
breathin
g
at 30 fsw is increased to
90 minutes. If the tender had a hyperbaric exposure within
the past 12 hours, an additional 60 minute O
2
breathin
g
period is taken at 30 fsw.
9. If si
g
nificant improvement is not obtained within 30
minutes at 165 feet, consult with a Divin
g
Medical Officer
before switchin
g
to Treatment Table 4.
Figure 21-9.
Treatment Table 6A.
CHAPTER 21 — Recompression Therapy 21-43
Treatment Table 4
1. Descent rate - 20 ft/min.
2. Ascent rate - 1 ft/min.
3. Time at 165 feet includes compression.
4. If only air is available, decompress on air. If oxy
g
en is
available, patient be
g
ins oxy
g
en breathin
g
upon arrival at
60 feet with appropriate air breaks. Both tender and
patient breathe oxy
g
en be
g
innin
g
2 hours before leavin
g
30 feet. (see para
g
raph 21-5.4.4.2).
5. Ensure life-support considerations can be met before
committin
g
to a Table 4. (see para
g
raph 21-5.6) Internal
chamber temperature should be below 85° F.
6. If oxy
g
en breathin
g
is interrupted, no compensatory
len
g
thenin
g
of the table is required.
7. If switchin
g
from Treatment Table 6A or 3 at 165 feet, stay
a maximum of 2 hours at 165 feet before decompressin
g
.
8. If the chamber is equipped with a hi
g
h-O
2
treatment
g
as,
it may be administered at 165 fsw, not to exceed 2.8 ata
O
2
. Treatment
g
as is administered for 25 minutes
interupted by 5 minutes of air.
Figure 21-10.
Treatment Table 4.
21-44 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 5
Treatment Table 7
1. Table be
g
ins upon arrival at 60 feet. Arrival at 60 feet is
accomplished by initial treatment on Table 6, 6A or 4. If
initial treatment has pro
g
ressed to a depth shallower than
60 feet, compress to 60 feet at 20 ft/min to be
g
in Table 7.
2. Maximum duration at 60 feet is unlimited. Remain at 60
feet a minimum of 12 hours unless overridin
g
circumstances dictate earlier decompression.
3. Patient be
g
ins oxy
g
en breathin
g
periods at 60 feet.
Tender need breathe only chamber atmosphere
throu
g
hout. If oxy
g
en breathin
g
is interrupted, no
len
g
thenin
g
of the table is required.
4. Minimum chamber O
2
concentration is 19 percent.
Maximum CO
2
concentration is 1.5 percent SEV (11.4
mmH
g
). Maximum chamber internal temperature is 85°F
(para
g
raph 21-5.6.5).
5. Decompression starts with a 2-foot upward excursion
from 60 to 58 feet. Decompress with stops every 2 feet for
times shown in profile below. Ascent time between stops
is approximately 30 seconds. Stop time be
g
ins with
ascent from deeper to next shallower step. Stop at 4 feet
for 4 hours and then ascend to the surface at 1 ft/min.
6. Ensure chamber life-support requirements can be met
before committin
g
to a Treatment Table 7.
7. A Divin
g
Medical Officer shall be consulted before
committin
g
to this treatment table.
Figure 21-11.
Treatment Table 7.
CHAPTER 21 — Recompression Therapy 21-45
Treatment Table 8
1. Enter the table at the depth which is exactly equal to or
next
g
reater than the deepest depth attained in the
recompression. The descent rate is as fast as tolerable.
2. The maximum time that can be spent at the deepest
depth is shown in the second column. The maximum time
for 225 fsw is 30 minutes; for 165 fsw, 3 hours. For an
asymptomatic diver, the maximum time at depth is 30
minutes for depths exceedin
g
165 fsw and 2 hours for
depths equal to or shallower than 165 fsw.
3. Decompression is be
g
un with a 2-fsw reduction in
pressure if the depth is an even number. Decompression
is be
g
un with a 3-fsw reduction in pressure if the depth is
an odd number. Subsequent stops are carried out every 2
fsw. Stop times are
g
iven in column three. The stop time
be
g
ins when leavin
g
the previous depth. Ascend to the
next stop in approximately 30 seconds.
4. Stop times apply to all stops within the band up to the next
quoted depth. For example, for ascent from 165 fsw,
stops for 12 minutes are made at 162 fsw and at every
two-foot interval to 140 fsw. At 140 fsw, the stop time
becomes 15 minutes. When travelin
g
from 225 fsw, the
166-foot stop is 5 minutes; the 164-foot stop is 12
minutes. Once be
g
un, decompression is continuous. For
example, when decompressin
g
from 225 feet, ascent is
not halted at 165 fsw for 3 hours. However, ascent may
be halted at 60 fsw and shallower for any desired period
of time.
5. While deeper than 165 fsw, helium-oxy
g
en mixture with
16-21 percent oxy
g
en may be breathed by mask to
reduce narcosis. At 165 fsw and shallower, a heliox mix
with a pO
2
not to exceed 2.8 ata may be
g
iven to the diver
as a treatment
g
as. At 60 fsw and shallower, pure oxy
g
en
may be
g
iven to the diver as a treatment
g
as. For all
treatment
g
ases (HeO
2
, N
2
O
2
,
and O
2
), a schedule of 25
minutes on
g
as and 5 minutes on chamber air should be
followed for a total of four cycles. Additional oxy
g
en may
be
g
iven at 60 fsw after a 2-hour interval of chamber air.
See Treatment Table 7 for
g
uidance.
6. A hi
g
h-O
2
treatment mix can be used at treatment depth
and durin
g
decompression. If hi
g
h O
2
breathin
g
is
interrupted, no len
g
thenin
g
of the table is required.
7. To avoid loss of the chamber seal, ascent may be halted
at 4 fsw and the total remainin
g
stop time of 240 minutes
taken at this depth. Ascend directly to the surface upon
completion of the required time.
8. Total ascent time from 225 fsw is 56 hours, 29 minutes.
For a 165-fsw recompression, total ascent time is 53
hours, 52 minutes, and for a 60-fsw recompression, 36
hours, 0 minutes.
Depth (fsw)
Max Time at Initial
Treatment Depth (hours)
2-fsw
Stop TImes (minutes)
225 0.5 5
165 3 12
140 5 15
120 8 20
100 11 25
80 15 30
60 Unlimited 40
40 Unlimited 60
20 Unlimited 120
Figure 21-12.
Treatment Table 8.
21-46 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 5
Treatment Table 9
1. Descent rate - 20 ft/min.
2. Ascent rate - 20 ft/min. Rate may be slowed to 1 ft/min
dependin
g
upon the patient’s medical condition.
3. Time at 45 feet be
g
ins on arrival at 45 feet.
4. If oxy
g
en breathin
g
must be interrupted because of CNS
Oxy
g
en Toxicity, oxy
g
en breathin
g
may be restarted 15
minutes after all symptoms have subsided. Resume
schedule at point of interruption (see para
g
raph
21-5.5.6.1.1).
5. Tender breathes 100 percent O
2
durin
g
last 15 minutes at
45 feet and durin
g
ascent to the surface re
g
ardless of
ascent rate used.
6. If patient cannot tolerate oxy
g
en at 45 feet, this table can
be modified to allow a treatment depth of 30 feet. The
oxy
g
en breathin
g
time can be extended to a maximum of
3 to 4 hours.
Figure 21-13.
Treatment Table 9.
CHAPTER 21 — Recompression Therapy 21-47
Air Treatment Table 1A
1. Descent rate - 20 ft/min.
2. Ascent rate - 1 ft/min.
3. Time at 100 feet includes time from the surface.
Figure 21-14.
Air Treatment Table 1A.
21-48 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 5
Air Treatment Table 2A
1. Descent rate - 20 ft/min.
2. Ascent rate - 1 ft/min.
3. Time at 165 feet includes time from the surface.
Figure 21-15.
Air Treatment Table 2A.
CHAPTER 21 — Recompression Therapy 21-49
Air Treatment Table 3
1. Descent rate - 20 ft/min.
2. Ascent rate - 1 ft/min.
3. Time at 100 feet-includes time from the surface.
Figure 21-16.
Air Treatment Table 3.
21-50 U.S. Navy Diving Manual—Volume 5
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